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pharm exam 3 ab

pharm exam 3 antibacterials

QuestionAnswer
Potentiative Two drugs work better together than they would individually actually increasing the total effect
Additive Two or more drugs combined effect
Antagonistic Two or more drugs cause each other to not work as well or block effects.
Narrow Spectrum active against only a few species of microbes
Broad Spectrum active against many species of microbes
Drug resistance acquires by microbes either via spontaneous mutation or conjugation. Caused by overuse of antibiotics.
Suprainfection An secondary infection that appears during the course of treatment of a primary infection
*Penicillin* Weaken the cell wall of bacteria
Penicillin G First Penicillin, Narrow spectrum
Amoxicillin Preferred Oral Penicillin drug Used for Influenzae, E. Coli, Shigella, Salmonella Adult dose 750
Augmentin Combo with Amoxicillin to increase spectrum SE: N/V, Diarhea
Zosyn Combo Penicillin drug to extend spectrum SE: Bleeding (disrupts platelets) Careful with renal patients
*Cephlasporin* Beta
Cephalxin 1st gen. Highly effective against G+
Cefoxitin 2nd gen. Effective against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Rocephin 3rd gen. Broad Spectrum antimicrobial Painful with IM admin (lidocaine commonly used) SE: hypersensitivity, bleeding due to vit K interference, thrombophlebitis, hemolytic anemia DO NOT give with calcium (fatal precipitates) Careful w/ Warfarin
Vancomycin Broad spectrum antibiotic affects cell wall and causes cell death Used for C
Red Man Syndrome Caused by vancomycin usually being administered to fast S/S Tachycardia, hypotension, flushing Must slow vanco, if vitals change call provider
Tetracyclines Route: Oral
*Macrolides* Broad Spectrum antibiotic including the
Erythromycin Route: Oral & IV Oldest Macrolides
Azithromycin Route: Oral and IV Macrolide
Clindamycin Route: Oral, IM, IV Macrolide
Linezolid (Zyvox) First in class of Oxizolidones
Mupricion (Bactroban) Topical antibacterial for impetigo and nasal MRSA
Aminoglycoside (Gentamycin) Route: IV Used for serious infections like E. Coli SE: Kidney toxic, ototoxic, tinitis Can not give with Penicillin!! Another line and another time Need trough and peak levels
Silvadine Route: Topical Used for 2nd/3rd degree burns SE: Acidosis
Bactrim Route: Oral & IV Broad Spectrum Sulfa drug = Watch for allergies
Steven Johnson Syndrome Necrotic skin rash
Nitrofurantoin Broad Spectrum Antibacterial
Isoniazid (INH) TB drug
Rifampin TB drug
Pyrazinamide TB drug
Ethambutol TB drug
Ciproflaxin Route: Oral or IV Broad Spectrum
Levofloxacin Similar to Ciproflaxin but used for Respiratory infections SE: Same as Ciproflaxin
Metronidazole (Flagyl) Good for protazoa infection (only effects anerobes)
Amphotericin B Route: IV only Dangerous Drug
*Azoles* Alternative to Amphotericin B
Itraconazole (Sporanox) Safer than Amphotericin
Ketoconazole Antifungal SE: Effects sex hormones CYP450
Fluconazole Antifungal for vaginal candiasis
Clotrimazole Topical antifungal
Nystatin Oral and topical antifungal
Acyclovir Route: IV, Oral, Topical Only active against Herpes Viruses Used for cold sores
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) Route: Oral For ages 1 and above for flu prevention Must start no more than 2 days of symptom onset Good for H1N1 and H5N1 & Influenza A & B
Created by: hkrawietz