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psychology unit3 ch7

studies of cognitive processes

TermDefinition
Aphasia The impairment of language caused by damage to the brain (usually stroke).
Broca's aphasia A result from damage to Broca's area, often surrounding areas that leads to difficulty in expressing messages in words or sentences but the ability to comprehend speech is largely unaffected. Typically, little speech is produced.
Corpus callosum The thick band of about 200 million nerve fibres connecting the right and left hemispheres.
Cognition A broad terms that relates to mental activities such as thinking, problem solving, language, reasoning and so forth. It entails our knowledge, beliefs, thoughts and ideas that we have about ourselves and our environment.
Cognitive processes The mental processes involved in acquiring, retaining and using knowledge. A major aspect of our cognitions involves attention, perception, memory, language and learning and linked with our conscious experience.
Left visual field Visual stimuli on the left hand side of the stationary point that the person's eyes are fixated on.
Optic chiasm The point at the base of the forebrain where the optic nerves from each eye meet and cross over.
Optic nerve The two tracts of neurons that transmit visual information from the eyes to the occipital lobes of the brain.
Perception The processes involving the way the brain organises and interprets sensory information.
Photoreceptors A layer of specialised nerve cells that detects visual stimuli. They make up the retina located at the back of the eye and tranduces visual light energy into electrochemical energy (nerve impulses)
Pseudoneglect A tendency to display a leftward attentional bias (the left side of space tends to be looked at for longer than the right) that is found in most normally functional people.
Retina A layer of photoreceptors located at the back of the eye that detect visual stimuli.
Right visual field Visual stimuli on the left-hand side of the stationary point on which the person's eyes are fixated.
Spatial neglect A disorder in which the person affected systematically ignores stimuli on one side of their body, occurring after brain damage usually in the posterior region of their right parietal lobe.
Split brain Occurs after brain surgery (known as commisurotomy) in which the corpus callosum is severed. The two sides of the brain are still connected at the subcortical (deeper) level but the two hemispheres are separated.
Wernicke's aphasia Part of the left temporal lobe, reponsible for language reception and interpretation and for creation of grammatically correct speech.
Created by: lydiamcc