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Cognitive Psychology

Test 1 (Chapters 3&4)

What is perception? experiences resulting from a stimulation of senses (top-down processing)
What is bottom up processing? Processing that begins with stimulation of the receptors.
Who proposed the RBC theory? Biederman
What does the RBC theory propose? proposes that we perceive objects by perceiving elementary features called geons.
What is Principle of componential recovery? If we can recover (see) an object’s geons, we can identify the object.
What is top-down processing? Processing that begins with a person’s prior knowledge or expectations.
Who did the experiment about odor intensity? Robert Teghtsoonian
What is speech segmentation? when one word ends and the next one begins
What are Gestalt psychologists concerned with? (focus on a whole instead of parts) perceptual organization, the way elements are grouped together to create larger objects.
What is the low of good continuation? Points that, when connected, result in straight or smoothly curving lines are seen as belonging together, and the lines tend to be seen in such a way as to follow the smoothest path.
What is the law of simplicity? Every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible.
What is the law of similarity? Similar things appear to be grouped together.
What is the law of familiarity? things that form patterns that are familiar or meaningful are likely to be grouped together.
What is the difference between heuristics and algorithms? Heuristics: rules of thumb that provide a best-guess solution to a problem. An algorithm is a procedure that is guaranteed to solve a problem.
What is the oblique effect? people can perceive horizontals and verticals more easily than other orientations. Light-from-above heuristic.
What experiment is Stephen Palmer known for? When Palmer asked observers to identify the object in the target picture, they were better at identifying a context-appropriate object, using their knowledge about the scene to help them perceive the briefly flashed object. (Kitchen scene)
What did Colin Blakemore and Graham Cooper do? found that rearing a kitten in an environment consisting only of verticals reshaped the kitten’s visual cortex so it eventually contained neurons that responded mainly to verticals.
What did Isabel Gauthier and coworkers do? determined whether response to faces in FFA might be due to experience-dependent plasticity by measuring the level of activity in the FFA in response to faces and to objects called Greebles.
What did Leslie Ungerleider and Mortimer Mishkin do? studied how removing part of a monkey’s brain affected its ability to identify an object and to determine the object’s location.
What is the pathway leading from the striate cortex to the temporal lobe known as? The "what" pathway/perception pathway
What is the pathway leading from the striate cortex to the parietal lobe known as? The "where" pathway/action pathway
What is a single dissociation? one person. One function is absent (naming objects) and another is present (e.g., locating objects). Can conclude that the two functions involve different mechanisms, although they may not operate totally independently of one another.
What are double dissociations? two or more people. a second patient, who has parietal lobe damage, can identify objects but can’t tell exactly where they are located.two functions are served by different mechanisms and that these mechanisms operate independently of one another.
What did Milner and Goodale study? D.F., a 34-year-old woman who suffered damage to her temporal lobe.
What did Giacomo Rizzolatti and coworkers discover? neurons in the monkey’s premotor cortex that fired not only when the monkey picked up a piece of food, but also when the monkey observed the experimenter picking up a piece of food.
What are mirror neurons? neurons that respond both when a monkey observes someone else grasping an object and when the monkey itself grasps an object.
What are audiovisual mirror neurons? respond when a monkey performs a hand action and when it hears the sound associated with this action
What is attention? the ability to focus on specific stimuli or locations
What did Colin Cherry do? dichotic listening- They could not report the content of the unattended message.
What was Donald Broadbent's model? Sensory memory --> The filter -->The detector --> Short-term memory
What is the cocktail party effect? when Moray presented the listener’s name to the other, unattended ear, about a third of the participants detected it
What did J. A. Gray and A. I. Wedderburn do? Dear Aunt Jane experiment
What did Anne Triesman do? proposed a modification of Broadbent’s theory The attenuator--> dictionary unit--> memory
What did Donald MacCay do? attended ear: ambiguous sentences, unattended ear: biasing words. -->late selection model of attention
What are cognitive resources? refers to the idea that a person has a certain cognitive capacity, which can be used for carrying out various tasks
What is cognitive load? the amount of a person’s cognitive resources needed to carry out a particular cognitive task
What did Nilli Lavie propose? the amount of cognitive resources that remain as a person is carrying out a primary task determines how well the person can avoid attending to task-irrelevant stimuli.
What is the Stroop effect? because the names of the words cause a competing response and therefore slow responding to the target—the color of the ink. -->due to automaticity
What did Walter Schneider and Robert Shiffrin do? two tasks simultaneously: (1) holding information about target stimuli in memory and (2) paying attention to a series of “distractor” stimuli and determining if one of the target stimuli is present among these distractor stimuli
What is automatic processing? is (1) without intention (2) at a cost of only some of a person’s cognitive resources.
What is controlled processing? have to pay close attention at all times and have to search for the target among the distractors in a much more focused and controlled way
What did Arien Mack and Irvin Rock discover? Paying attention to the vertical and horizontal arms apparently made observers “blind” to the unattended test object. This effect is called inattentional blindness.
What did Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris do? gorilla experiment.
What did Ronald Rensink and coworkers do? Rensink found that the pictures had to be alternated back and forth a number of times before the difference was detected.  This difficulty in detecting changes in scenes is called change blindness
What is exogenous attention? automatic attraction of attention by a sudden visual or auditory stimulus.
When is endogenous attention? when you consciously decide to scan the environment, perhaps to find a specific stimulus or just to keep track of what is going on.
What is stimulus salience? the physical properties of the stimulus, such as color, contrast, or movement. Capturing attention by stimulus salience is a bottom-up process because it depends solely on the pattern of light and dark, color and contrast in a stimulus.
What are scene schemas? an observer’s knowledge about what is contained in typical scenes . --> top-down processing
What is the just in time strategy? eye movements occur just before we need the information they will provide.
What did Michael Posner and coworkers do? indicate that observers reacted more rapidly on valid trials than on invalid trials. Posner interpreted this result as showing that information processing is more effective at the place where attention is directed.
What is the same-object advantage? The enhancing effect of attention had spread within the rectangle on the right, so even though the cue was at A, some enhancement occurred at B as well.
Who proposed the feature integration theory? Anne Triesman
What are the two main stages o the feature integration theory? 1) Preattentive stage: objects are analyzed into separate features 2)Focused attention stage: featurs combined
What are illusory conjunctions? combinations of features from different stimuli
What is a crucial characteristic of Balint's syndrome (damage to Parietal Lobe)? an inability to focus attention on individual objects.
What did Carol Colby and coworkers do? trained a monkey to keep its eyes fixated on a dot while a peripheral light was flashed at a location off to the right-->neuron’s response can be affected not just by which receptors are stimulated but also by other factors
What did Gordon Shulman and coworkers do? attention to a particular direction of motion increases activity in a number of brain structures.
What did Michael Posner and Mary Rothbart do? three different types of attentional processing: Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Control
What did Klin and coworkers do? ompared eye fixations of autistic and nonautistic people as they watched the film Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
What % of the brain is dedicated to vision? 50%
What is perceptual inference? brain usually fills in the gaps based on our previous experience and expectations
What is the Template Matching Theory? We have a template for every image built into our perceptual system, and try to find the best match of these templates when observing objects in the real world.
What is the Pandemonium Theory? Image Demon,Feature Demons,Cognitive Demons,Decision Demon
What is the Interactive Activation Theory? model assumes that the processing of information during reading consists of series of levels corresponding to visual features, letters and words.
What are saccades? quick eye movements
What is smooth pursuit tracking? allow the eyes to closely follow a moving object
What is vergence? the simultaneous movement of the pupils of the eyes towards or away from one another during focusing
What are Fixational movements? maintaining of the visual gaze on a single location.
What is the physical definition of sound? sound is pressure changes in the air or other medium.
What is the perceptual definition of sound? sound is the experience we have when we hear
What is amplitude? - Difference in pressure between high and low peaks of wave - Perception of amplitude is loudness
What is frequency? - number of cycles within a given period time period - perception of pitch is related to frequency
What is Temporal integration? Auditory system does not immediately break sequence into separate streams. Auditory system waits and only gradually segregates streams.
What are Binaural cues? location cues based on the comparison of the signals received by the left and right ears.
What are spectral cutes? information for location comes from spectrum of frequencies.
Created by: 1363731667
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