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Pathology Unit 3

fractures part 1 & 2

What is the most common affliction of bone? fracture
What are the two categories of fractures? *Direct *Indirect
What is an indirect fracture? force of trauma is redirected
What is a direct fracture? the fracture is at the site of trauma
What classification of fractures is when the surface of the skin is broken; bone is seen through the skin? open/compound fx
What is the fx where skin is not broken? closed or simple fx
What is the fx when the bone is not broken all the way through? incomplete fx
T/F: an incomplete fx can be a simple fx. true
What are some subsets of incomplete fx? *hairline *greenstick *torus
What is the name of the fracture when the bone is broken all the way through? complete fx
What are the two fractures that are classified by alignment? *displaced *nondisplaced
What is a nondisplaced fx? when the fragments from the fracture site are still in place
what fx occurs at a right angle to the long axis of the bone? transverse fx
what type of fx is an incomplete that extends from the surface into but not all the way through a long bone? fissure fx
What is another name for a fissure fx? hairline fx
What is the fx when the axis of the fx is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the bone? oblique fx
What type of fracture is when the bone appears to be twisted apart; caused by rotational stress; will wrap around the bone? spiral fx
What is the type of fx where the cortex on one side of the bone is broken? greenstick fx
What type of fx is a lengthwise break with the long axis of the bone? longitudinal fx
What kind of fracture occurs when one fragment is driven into the other; usually in hips and shoulders? impacted fx
What is a subset of an impacted fx and incomplete fx; its cortex is buckled; usually in younger kids, the bone is flexible, the bone doesn't break but is compressed in the center? torus fx
What is another name for a torus fx? buckle fx
What is the fracture called when the bone is fractured in more than 2 fragments? comminuted fx
What is a Salter-Harris fx? fracture into epiphyseal plate; can interrupt growth process (5 different types).
What type of salter-harris is when there is crushed injury to the physis? V
What type of salter-harris is when the fx is partway thru physis extending UP into the metaphysis? II
What is the type of salter-harris fracture when the fracture is thru the physis without displacement? I
What is the type of salter-harris fracture is when the fracture is partway thru physis extending DOWN into epiphysis? III
What is the type of salter-harris fracture when the fracture is thru the metaphysis, physis & epiphysis? IV
What type of fracture occurs at points of muscle attachment? avulsion
Where are some common sites for avulsion fractures? calcaneus, tibial tuberosity, elbow (olecranon process brakes off)
What type of fracture is caused from constant stress on the bone to make a transverse fx? stress fx
What are another names for a stress fx? fatigue & march fx
What is a fracture that occurs spontaneously in diseased bone? pathologic fx
What is a fracture that enters a joint? intra-articular fracture
What is a fracture of the skull, a fragment is depressed; aka "ping pong" fx? depression fx
What is the fracture with small pieces of bone which are chipped off a bone? chip fx
What is a fracture of the femur between the lesser and greater trochanter? intertrochanteric fracture
What is a intracapsular fracture of the femur? subcapital neck fx
What is a fx of the femur that is below the greater and lesser trochanter? subtrochanteric fx
What is healing of a fracture in an abnormal (non-anatomic) position? malunion fx
What is a fracture that has failed to heal after several months? nonunion fx
What is it called when a bone is partially out of its joint? subluxation
What is it called when a bone is totally out of its joint? dislocation
What is another word for dislocation? luxation
What is a fracture that is not visible on an xray with 24-48 hours of trauma; normally becomes visible within three to four weeks at the time that fracture site is healing? occult fx
What are some causes of positive fat pad sign? *joint effusion *false-negative due to poor positioning *rheumatoid arthritis
What is a fracture of the 5th metacarpal as a result of a blow to or with the hand? boxer's fx
What is a fracture at the base of the 1st metacarpal with involvement of the 1st metacarpal joint? Bennett's fx
What fx results from a small avulsion fragment that remains attached to the trapezium and index metacarpal? Bennett's fx
What is a fracture when there is a subluxation or dislocation of the main metacarpal shaft fragment? Bennett's fx
What fracture is of the distal radius with posterior displacement and a chip fx of the ulnar styloid? Colle's fx
What fx is known as the "dinner fork deformity"? Colle's fx
With a Colle's fx, which way does the hand go? posterior? anterior? posterior
What fx is when the distal radius is displaced anterior or forward? Smith's
Which fx has palmar displacement? Colle's? Smith's? Barton's? Smith's
What is a Barton's fx? intra-articular fx of the distal radius with dislocation of the radiocarpal joint.
For Barton's fx, are fractures displaced volar or dorsal? can be displaced volar or dorsal
what fracture is of the lateral & medial malleolus? bimalleolar fx
What fracture is of the posterior distal tibia and lateral & medial malleolus? trimalleolar fx
What is a bi or trimalleolar fracture with dislocation of the ankle joint? pott's fracture
Which sesamoid is located just proximal to the base of the 5th metatarsal under the foot? os peroneum
Which sesamoid is located posterior to the talus? os trigonum
what type of fracture is a collapse of a vertebral body? compression fx
What fracture is a burst fx of the ring of C1? Jefferson's fx
What is a bilateral fracture of pars interarticularis of the axis (C2)? Hangman's fx
What is the difference between a hangman's fx and a flexion teardrop fx? hangman's is a fx of the posterior aspect of the vertebral body and a flexion teardrop is a fx of the anterior aspect of the vertebral body.
What is the most common way a flexion teardrop fx occurs? car accidents
What are the four stages of healing? 1)hematoma 2)granulation tissue 3)callus formation 4)remodeling
Which stage of healing requires complete immobilization? hematoma
What organisms build bone? osteoblasts
What organisms destroy dead bone? osteoclasts
What does R.I.C.E. stand for? rest, ice, compression, elevation
What is the treatment for subluxation? closed reduction
What did external fixation replace? traction
What makes up an external fixation device? screws are placed into the bone above and below the fracture and a device is attached to the screws from the outside of the skin, where it may be adjusted to realign the bone
What is traction? realigns broken bones when operative fixation is not an option.
How does traction work? aligns the ends of a fracture by pulling the limb into a straight position with the use of weights and pulleys
What are the two types of traction? *skin traction *skeletal traction
What is the disorder called when an individual has more than five fingers or toes? polydactyly
What is an abnormal connection of fingers or toes "webbed" digits failed to separate normally during development? syndactyly
In syndactyly, what digits are most commonly involved? middle and ring fingers
What kind of syndactyly is when the fusion involves just the soft tissue between the digits? simple syndactyly
What refers to the shortening of the fingers or toes due to underdevelopment of the bones in the hands or feet? brachydactyly
What kind of syndactyly is when it involves fusion between the bones? complex syndactyly
What is the congenital absence of all or part of one or more fingers or toes? Ectrodactyly
What disorder is also known as the lobster-claw syndrome? ectrodactyly
What is also known as split hand/foot malformation? ectrodactyly
what does SHFM stand for? split hand/foot malformation
What is another name for club foot? talipes
What happens to the foot in talipes? the foot turns inward and downward at birth, resisting realignment
What does DDH stand for? Developmental dysplasia of the hip
What happens when an individual has DDH? displacement of the femoral head from the acetabulum (during the perinatal period) which disrupts the normal development of the hip joint
What are other names for DDH? *congenital hip dislocation *hip dysphasia
"clicking" sound made when the legs are pushed apart, skin folds in the thighs appear uneven, less flexibility on the affected side, and walking with a limp, waddle or walking on toes are all symptoms of what disorder? DDH/ hip dysphagia
What is the treatment for DDH? pavlik harness, closed reduction, surgery and spica cast
What is the name of the harness worn to treat DDH? pavlik harness
What is the name of the cast a baby wears after having surgery to treat DDH? spica cast
What is the name of the deformity known as sunken/funnel chest? pectus excavatum
T/F: pectus excavatum is more common in males than females. true
What is the congenital chest wall deformity in which several ribs and the sternum grow abnormally producing a concave or caved in appearance in the anterior chest wall? pectus excavatum
What is the name of the condition in which a vertebra in the spine slips out of the proper position onto the bone below it? spondylolisthesis
What is the most common treatment for spondylolisthesis? with exercises to stretch and strengthen the lower back muscles
What is the name of the disorder for an abnormal curvature of the spine? scoliosis
T/F: In scoliosis, usually the convex is to the right in the thoracic and the convex is to the left in the lumbar spine. true
What is the rotary deformity where the vertebral bodies are rotated toward the convex side of the curve and may produce a rib cage deformity? rotoscoliosis
T/F: in rotoscoliosis, the vertebral bodies are so rotated they almost look lateral. true
What type of scoliosis results from poor posture or different leg lengths? functional
What type of scoliosis is idiopathic, muscular imbalance or results from trauma or disease? structural
T/F: individuals that have scoliosis and wear a brace, that brace will correct the curve as long as they wear it everyday. false; it does not correct the curve, it prevents the curve from getting worse.
What is used to measure the degree of severity of scoliosis? Lippman-Cobb method
What kind of rods are place just above and below the site of surgery in scoliosis patients? Harrington rods
What is another name for the hunchback deformity? kyphosis
Kyphosis signifies the presence of what disease? osteoporosis
Kyphosis affects what part of the spine? thoracic
What is the congenital condition in which the patella develops from 2 ossification centers and that results in a main and accessory bone? bipartite patella
The main and accessory bones are connected by what kind of tissue? fibrocartilaginous tissue
What is it called when there are abnormal ribs coming off of C7? cervical ribs
What is the disease where there is a bacterial bone infection? osteomyelitis
What does osteomyelitis look like radiographically? *loss of cortical margins *abscess
T/F: rheumatoid arthritis progressively only destroys the cartilage. false; destroys both bone and cartilage
What joints does rheumatoid arthritis normally begin at? hands and feet
What does rheumatoid arthritis look like radiographically? joint swelling, demineralization of bone next to joint, erosion of bony margin around joint, thinning of joint space, deformity of joint
What is the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis? no cure; treatments help control and minimize disability and deformities
What is the disease also known as bamboo spine? ankylosing spondylitis
What parts are normally affected by ankylosing spondylitis? vertebrae and sacroiliac joints
What is ankylosing spondylitis? articular cartilage is destroyed and fibrous adhesions develop; fusion of the vertebrae into a solid block of bone
What is gouty arthritis? idiopathic, increased uric acid in the blood serum: deposits in the joint and adjacent bone and causes acute inflammatory reaction, more common in men and more common in the big toe
What disease is also known as DJD (degenerative joint disease)? osteoarthritis
What disease is a loss of joint cartilage and reactive new bone formation? osteoarthritis
What does osteoarthritis look like radiographically? *narrowing of the joint space *cyst-like bony deposits in joints *joint deformity *bone growths
What disease is a loss of bone density resulting in porous and brittle bones? osteoporosis
What disease is known as the "silent disease" because it has no symptoms? osteoporosis
What is used for diagnosis of osteoporosis? bone densitometry
What helps move calcium from the small intestines to the blood? vitamin D
What helps increase calcium absorption from blood to bone? magnesium
What is the disease of softening of the bones caused by a failure of the normal calcification (calcium deposits)? osteomalacia
Patients who have osteomalacia and osteoporosis, do you want to decrease or increase kVp? decrease; there is a loss of bone
What disease is when there is a hypersecretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland when the bones have stopped growing? Acromegaly
What bones are most affected by acromegaly? jaw and forehead
What disease is normally a result from a pituitary tumor? acromegaly
Created by: mokapis