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AP Psych Unit 4

Chapter 3 Consciousness

TermDefinition
Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Biological rhythms Periodic physiological fluctuations
Seasonal Affective Disorder A mood disorder that seems to appear during the darkened winter months
Circadian rhythm the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
Suprachiasmatic nucleus A tiny neural cluster in the hypothalamus that alters the production of melatonin that is produced by the pineal gland
Melatonin Sleep inducing hormone
Adenosine Chemical which inhibits certain neurons, making us sleepy.
REM sleep Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep (stage 5)
Alpha waves The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Sleep Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
Hallucinations False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Delta waves The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
Slow Wave sleep The two sleep stages stages 3 and stages 4.
Paradoxical sleep Nickname for REM sleep or Stage 5 sleep because in this stage the muscles are relaxed except for minor twitches but other body systems are active.
Insomnia Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attack. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep often at inopportune times
Hypocretin An alerting neurotransmitter that seems to be missing in narcolepsy
Sleep Apnea A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
Night terrors A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
Dreams A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content.
Manifest content According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)
The Interpretation of Dreams Freud's book where he offered his theory of wish-fulfillment
Latent content According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety value.
REM rebound The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Age regression The supposed ability to relive childhood experiences
Posthypnotic suggestions A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Dissociation A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
Social influence theory Hypnotic phenomena are not unique to hypnosis. Role-playing open to suggestibility
Divided-consciousness theory Different levels of consciousness exist when a person is hypnotized, and part of the individual is separated from themselves
Psychoactive drugs A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Tolerance The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger
Neuroadaptation the process in which the brain adapts its chemistry to offset the drug effect
Withdrawal The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
Physical dependence A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
Psychological dependence A psychological need to use a drug such as to relieve negative emotions
Addiction Compulsive drug craving and use.
Depressants Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
Alcohol A psychoactive drug that blocks the neurotransmitter GABA and prevents the absorption of glutamate. This is why alcohol packs what we call a "double sedative punch" it is always a depressant
Barbituates A group of depressants that reduce anxiety and impair memory and judgment. Known as tranquilizers.
Opiates Category of depressants. Heroin mimics your body's natural opiates and binds to your active receptors which allows dopamine to flood the synaptic gap sending messages it shouldn't
Stimulants Drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Amphetamines Drugs that stimulate neural activity causing speed up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
Methampetimines Are stimulants that function like agonists. Meth mimics dopamine and when the dopamine is reabsorbed into the terminal branches so is the meth, it pushes dopamine out of the vesicles and into the synapse allowing the dopamine to send signals it shouldn't
Cocaine Forces dopamine to stay in the synapses by preventing the reuptake of dopamine blocking the entrance to the vesicles.
Ecstasy (MDMA) Are stimulants that function like agonists. Meth mimics serotonin and when the serotonin is reabsorbed into the terminal branches so is the ecstasy it pushes serotonin into the synapse allowing the dopamine to send signals it shouldn't
Hallucinogens Psychedelic drugs, such as LSD and Marijuana that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
LSD A powerful hallucinogenic drug that acts on serotonin, also known as acid, it mimics serotonin as an agonist and binds again and again sending unwanted signals.
Marijuana A powerful hallucinogen that mimics your body's natural receptors allowing dopamine to flood the synapse and send unwanted signals
THC The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
Near-death experience An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
Dualists The presumption that the mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
Monists The presumption that the mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
Cognitive Neuroscience The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our mental processes- is taking the first small step by relating specific brain states to conscious experiences.
Dual processing The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Blindsight A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
Selective attention The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus as in the cocktail party effect
Cocktail party effect Your ability to attend to only 1 voice among many we listen to certain information above all
Innattentional blindness Failing to see objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Change blindness Failing to see changes in visual field
Choice blindness Failing to hear changes in sound
NREM-1 Also known as stage 1 sleep. Here a person exhibits a slowing brain wave with alpha waves. The person is awake but relaxed
Hypnagogic sensations A sensation of falling or floating weightlessly which may jerk you back to being awake suddenly. Common during stage 1 sleep also known as NREM-1
NREM-2 A more relaxed state of sleep also known as stage 2 sleep. Associated with sleep spindles-bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity, and theta wave
Sleep paralysis Immobility or inability to move even though your brain and your motor cortex are active during REM sleep. Normally we don't notice it during our sleep.
Superchiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus The part of the brain that monitors light-sensitive proteins and signals the hypothalamus to make changes to hormones thus allowing us to go to sleep or wake up
Sleep talking/sleep walking Disorder that most often occurs in stage 4 sleep (deep sleep) also known as NREM-3. Usually more common in children and might be genetic.
Substance use disorder Continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and or physical risk
Alcohol use disorder popularly known as alcoholism. Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a drive to continue problematic use
Beta waves Brain waves that indicate that the brain is alert and active. Common when a person is awake and engaged, also when a person is experiencing REM sleep.
Theta waves Common waves that help transition a person into deep sleep. So this includes brain waves in stage 2 & stage 3 sleep or NREM-3
Activation synthesis theory The dream theory that suggests that we dream so that we can process and make sense of our sensory experiences throughout the day. As if dreams are our way to make sense of our experiences during the day.
Wish Fulfillment Was Freud's dream theory name. Part of psychoanalysis therapy is to examine the latent (hidden) content of a dream and the therapist interprets the meaning.
Created by: thompsonce