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Psych Test #3

Chapter 12, 9.2, 8.1-3, 13, 12

QuestionAnswer
define difference between "me" and "I" -"I" = subject, thinks/experiences/acts -"me" = empirical self, object
3 parts of the empirical self -social self -> defines you in relation to others (expectations) -material self -> possessions define you -spiritual self -> traits/abilities/ambitions/emotion, intangible
3 functions of empirical self -cognitive -> interpretation -behavioral -> values drive actions -motivational -> future possible self to work toward
3 themes of the self (ABC's) affect/emotion, behavior, cognition
define the processes & goals of thinking used to integrate/operate on concepts & manipulate them
4 processes & goals of thinking -categorization -reasoning -problem-solving -decision-making
building blocks of thinking mental representations/concepts
2 representational forms forms of thinking -visual/pictorial -propositional/linguistic*
self-concept -intuitive theory of how we relate/experience/function within vast range of significance experiences & contexts -your understanding/narrative of who you are -developed/maintained through relationships with others
self-representations -capture who you've been over the years -can be contradictory = self-discrepancies -working self-concept
what 2 things does behavior depend on? person & situation
emotion ubiquitous immediate subjective evaluative responses to events
3 components of emotions -cognitive reactions -> intuitive -physiological reactions -> arousal -subjective/phenomenological experiences -> what it feels like
role of emotion appropriate patterns of responding to an event & a way to express how you're feeling
3 purposes of emotion -adaptation (e.g. fight or flight) -cognitive -> focuses attention, influence behavior, aids memory -relationships (e.g. guilt, embarrassment)
James-Lange theory -stimulus -> physiological arousal -> subjective experience -arousal directly produces emotional response
problem with James-Lange theory not enough different physiological arousal for difference experiences
Cannon-Bard theory -stimulus perceived -> physiological arousal & subjective experience -separated physiology & experience as independent processes
Schachter-Singer theory -stimulus -> physiological arousal -> cognitive interpretation -> subjective experience -experiment: saline/norepinephrine & effect of rooms
self-esteem -how you feel about your self-representations -unconscious perspectives can affect self-esteem
motivation driving force behind behavior
3 roles of motivation -activates -> initial impetus -sustains -> persistence -guides -> direction toward goals
2 types of motivation -physiologically based -> body processes that maintain homeostasis -cognitively based -> purpose of goals/motives, achievement-oriented
3 components of physiologically based motivation -instincts -> unlearned behavior triggered by outside cues -needs - deficiencies & deprivations -drives - physiological state that works to satisfy needs
2 components of cognitively based motivation -extrinsic motives -> external contingencies -intrinsic motives -> internal rewards, killed with extrinsic motives (i.e. overjustification effect)
commonsense psychology/social cognition -person & situation inversely related -always trying to understand world around us -sense of control always needed -> produces dispositional attribution -live in cause/effect world
4 processes of social cognition based on what we see/infer internally -attention -> what you focus on determines what you see -interpretation -judgement -memory
4 tacticians of motivation -manage self-image -conserving effort -accuracy -outcomes/attitudes
2 ways that allow us to see what we want -conservation bias -> seek evidence to confirm belief & reject evidence that disagree -belief perseverance -> have a belief & it shapes processing of information
way that allows us to remember our way reconstructive memory -> based off how you feel currently, done in 3rd person, can't be trusted (implanted/flawed)
self-serving biases tendency to see oneself favorably
3 factors that shape self-serving biases -objective vs. subjective* -public vs. private* -aschematic vs. schematic (idea central to personal schema)*
3 ways in which self-serving biases manifest -self-enhancing -> take credit for good things -self-effacing -> never taking responsibility -counterdefense -> don't take credit & always take responsibility
4 outcomes of self-serving biases -fundamental attribution error -> judging others based off fn of who they are -actor/observer divergence -> judging based off negative behavior as fn of situation -false consensus -> overestimation of how many people agree with belief -false uniqueness
2 needs of a person need to be liked/loved/belong & be special/unique
2 reasons to self-serve -avoid depression & anxiety -feel good about yourself
autobiographical memory -stored as narratives about episodes & traits -organizes/binds highlights of life -finds unique traits to conceptualize (self-schema) -narratives & schema don't always match
self-relevance memory for trait enhanced/strengthened when making judgments about oneself
self-verification tendency to seek evidence to confirm self-concept
3 benefits of self-esteem -status -> worthy of respect -belonging -> evolutionary standpoint, use sociometer -security -> fear of death, mortality, finding value
narcissism grandiose view of self combined with tendency to seek admiration from & exploit others
implicit egotism -people not aware they're influenced by own names -automatic response to self-appreciate (snap judgments)
concept -mental representation that groups/categorizes shared features of related objects/events/stimuli -based on similarities
necessary condition something that must be true in order to belong
sufficient condition if true, proves that it belongs
family resemblance theory features appearing to be characteristic of category members but not possessed by every member
prototype theory -"best"/typical member of category serves as model -uses right visual field/LH & visual cortex
exemplar theory -category judgments made by comparing new instance with stored memories for other instances of category -helps with specifics -faster in left visual field/RH -uses prefrontal cortex & basal ganglia
category-specific deficit -inability to recognize objects belonging to particular category through ability to recognize objects outside of category undisturbed -brain "prewired" to organize sensory inputs into broad categories -deficits come from damage in LH of cerebral cortex
Created by: Tiffanyy