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# Measurements

### Measurements chapter 6 notes

TermDefinition
ss 1/2
I 1
V 5
X 10
L 50
C 100
D 500
M 1000
1 Liter 10 deciliter or 1000 ml
1 decileter 1/10th a liter, 100 ml
1 ml 1/1000th of a liter, 1/100th a deciliter
1 kg 1000grams
1 gram 1/1000th of a kg or 1000 mg
1 mg 1/1000th of a g, or 1000mcg
1 mcg 1/1000th of a mg or 1/millionth of a gram
Another name for ml CC or cubic centimeter
1lb 16 oz
1 oz 437.5 g
1 gr (grain) 64.8 mg rounded to 65
to convert milligrams to grams move the decimal point 3 places to the left
to convert grams to milligrams move the decimal point 3 places to the right
1 gallon 4 quarts
1 qt 2 pts
1 pt 16 fl oz
1 fl oz 8 fl dr (fluid dram)
1 fl dr 60 min (minim)
1 tsp 5 ml
1 tbsp 3 tsp or 15 ml
1 cup 8 fl oz
100 degrees celcius 212 degrees fahrenheit
Arabic number system 1, 1/2, 0.5 or 50%
Roman number system I,V,L,C,D
Positional notation a system used in roman numerals whereby the position of the numeral signifies its mathematical value
Denominator number below the bar
Numerator Number above the bar
Conversions changing one unit of measure into another so that both amounts remain equal
Equation a mathematical statement in which two terms are equal
Liquids ML-OZ formula x fl oz= (total prescribed ml)/(ml/fl oz conversion rate)
Filling Capsule Script formula x (caps needed)= (caps per dose)x(dose per day)x (days)
IV solution formula x (ml of KCl solution)=mEq KCl needed/mEq KCl per ml
ratio formula a/b=c/d
proportion equation x tabs/days= x tabs/ days
liquid prescription formula x ml= mg times ml/mg
word equation amount needed= dose amount x doses day x number of days
mixture dosing formula x ml= ml mix needed times ml/ml mix have
IV flow rate formula x ml= # min times ml/min
Variable an unknown number in a mathematical equation
flow rate the rate in ml/hr or ml/min at which a solution is administered to a patient; also known as rate of administration
volume % formula x volume wanted/ want % = volume prescribed/ have %
Dose formula Dose= ordered/have x quantity
1 gram 100 ml
concentration the strength of a solution as measured by weight to volume or volume to volume of the substance being measured
TPNs totl parenteral solutions or hyperalimentaion
Percent solution formula x ml/ % = ml/ %
qs ad the quantity needed to make a prescribed amount
Milliequivalent MeQ= the unit of measure for electrolytes in a solution
Valence the number of positive or negative charges on an ion
Electrolytes substances which conduct an electrical current and are found in the bodys blood tissue fluids and cells.
Commonly used in electrolyte solutions Salts and saline solutions
NaCl Sodium Chloride
MgSO4 Magnesium sulfate
KCl potassium chloride
K acetate potassium acetate
Ca Gluconate Calcium gluconate
Na Acetate Sodium Acetate
In order to calculate mEq for an electrolyte, the atomic number and weight must first be known. Then the weight is divided by the valence
To figure out a TPN order the amounts on the left are the ordered TPN amounts
To figure out a TPN order the amounts on the right are the amounts on hand
TPN formula after amounts are figured water needed= 1000ml minus other ingredients
Alligation a way to solve problems asociated with mixing prepartations of two different strengths of the same ingredient to obtain a strength in between the starting preperation
Finding power volume formula FV (final volume) = D (dilutent) = PV (powder volume)
finding powder new product (NP) NP=D+PV
Clarks rule formula to lower adult doses to be safe for children wight of child/ 150lb x adult dose = child dose
Body surface Area Formula Childs BSA times Adult dose/ average adult BSA (1.73m squared)
1 kg 2.2lbs
infant dose formula one dose= (amount of drug) times ( number of kg of infant weight)
BSA Body surface area: a measure used for dosage that is calculated from the height and weight of a person and measured in square meters
Nomogram a chart showing relationships between measurements
Professional Fee for prescription less than \$20 \$4
Professional fee for prescriptions between \$20.01-\$50 \$5
Professional fee for prescriptions between \$50.01- and higher \$6
U & C Usual and customary is the lowest price charged if a patient pays cash on that day for that drug,
Selling price formula AWP (average wholesale price)+ Professional Fee = price of prescription
Gross profit the difference between the selling price and the aquisition cost GP=SP-AC can be expressed as a %
Net Profit the difference between the selling price of the prescription and the sum of all costs associated with filling the prescription NP=GP-DF (dispensing fee)
Conditions for using ratio and proportion three of the four values must be known, numerators must have the same units, and denominators must have the same units
Steps for solving proportion problems define the variable and correct ratios, set up the proportion equation, establish the x equation, solve for x, express solution in correct units
name 2 types of measurement not used frequently in pharmacies anymore avoirdupois (lbs, oz's and grains) and Apothecary (gal, qts, pts, fl oz,fl dr,minim)
Created by: megancarter

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