click below

click below

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# Measurements

### Measurements chapter 6 notes

Term | Definition |
---|---|

ss | 1/2 |

I | 1 |

V | 5 |

X | 10 |

L | 50 |

C | 100 |

D | 500 |

M | 1000 |

1 Liter | 10 deciliter or 1000 ml |

1 decileter | 1/10th a liter, 100 ml |

1 ml | 1/1000th of a liter, 1/100th a deciliter |

1 kg | 1000grams |

1 gram | 1/1000th of a kg or 1000 mg |

1 mg | 1/1000th of a g, or 1000mcg |

1 mcg | 1/1000th of a mg or 1/millionth of a gram |

Another name for ml | CC or cubic centimeter |

1lb | 16 oz |

1 oz | 437.5 g |

1 gr (grain) | 64.8 mg rounded to 65 |

to convert milligrams to grams | move the decimal point 3 places to the left |

to convert grams to milligrams | move the decimal point 3 places to the right |

1 gallon | 4 quarts |

1 qt | 2 pts |

1 pt | 16 fl oz |

1 fl oz | 8 fl dr (fluid dram) |

1 fl dr | 60 min (minim) |

1 tsp | 5 ml |

1 tbsp | 3 tsp or 15 ml |

1 cup | 8 fl oz |

100 degrees celcius | 212 degrees fahrenheit |

Arabic number system | 1, 1/2, 0.5 or 50% |

Roman number system | I,V,L,C,D |

Positional notation | a system used in roman numerals whereby the position of the numeral signifies its mathematical value |

Denominator | number below the bar |

Numerator | Number above the bar |

Conversions | changing one unit of measure into another so that both amounts remain equal |

Equation | a mathematical statement in which two terms are equal |

Liquids ML-OZ formula | x fl oz= (total prescribed ml)/(ml/fl oz conversion rate) |

Filling Capsule Script formula | x (caps needed)= (caps per dose)x(dose per day)x (days) |

IV solution formula | x (ml of KCl solution)=mEq KCl needed/mEq KCl per ml |

ratio formula | a/b=c/d |

proportion equation | x tabs/days= x tabs/ days |

liquid prescription formula | x ml= mg times ml/mg |

word equation | amount needed= dose amount x doses day x number of days |

mixture dosing formula | x ml= ml mix needed times ml/ml mix have |

IV flow rate formula | x ml= # min times ml/min |

Variable | an unknown number in a mathematical equation |

flow rate | the rate in ml/hr or ml/min at which a solution is administered to a patient; also known as rate of administration |

volume % formula | x volume wanted/ want % = volume prescribed/ have % |

Dose formula | Dose= ordered/have x quantity |

1 gram | 100 ml |

concentration | the strength of a solution as measured by weight to volume or volume to volume of the substance being measured |

TPNs | totl parenteral solutions or hyperalimentaion |

Percent solution formula | x ml/ % = ml/ % |

qs ad | the quantity needed to make a prescribed amount |

Milliequivalent | MeQ= the unit of measure for electrolytes in a solution |

Valence | the number of positive or negative charges on an ion |

Electrolytes | substances which conduct an electrical current and are found in the bodys blood tissue fluids and cells. |

Commonly used in electrolyte solutions | Salts and saline solutions |

NaCl | Sodium Chloride |

MgSO4 | Magnesium sulfate |

KCl | potassium chloride |

K acetate | potassium acetate |

Ca Gluconate | Calcium gluconate |

Na Acetate | Sodium Acetate |

In order to calculate mEq for an electrolyte, the atomic number and weight must first be known. Then | the weight is divided by the valence |

To figure out a TPN order the amounts on the left | are the ordered TPN amounts |

To figure out a TPN order the amounts on the right | are the amounts on hand |

TPN formula after amounts are figured | water needed= 1000ml minus other ingredients |

Alligation | a way to solve problems asociated with mixing prepartations of two different strengths of the same ingredient to obtain a strength in between the starting preperation |

Finding power volume formula | FV (final volume) = D (dilutent) = PV (powder volume) |

finding powder new product (NP) | NP=D+PV |

Clarks rule formula to lower adult doses to be safe for children | wight of child/ 150lb x adult dose = child dose |

Body surface Area Formula | Childs BSA times Adult dose/ average adult BSA (1.73m squared) |

1 kg | 2.2lbs |

infant dose formula | one dose= (amount of drug) times ( number of kg of infant weight) |

BSA | Body surface area: a measure used for dosage that is calculated from the height and weight of a person and measured in square meters |

Nomogram | a chart showing relationships between measurements |

Professional Fee for prescription less than $20 | $4 |

Professional fee for prescriptions between $20.01-$50 | $5 |

Professional fee for prescriptions between $50.01- and higher | $6 |

U & C | Usual and customary is the lowest price charged if a patient pays cash on that day for that drug, |

Selling price formula | AWP (average wholesale price)+ Professional Fee = price of prescription |

Gross profit | the difference between the selling price and the aquisition cost GP=SP-AC can be expressed as a % |

Net Profit | the difference between the selling price of the prescription and the sum of all costs associated with filling the prescription NP=GP-DF (dispensing fee) |

Conditions for using ratio and proportion | three of the four values must be known, numerators must have the same units, and denominators must have the same units |

Steps for solving proportion problems | define the variable and correct ratios, set up the proportion equation, establish the x equation, solve for x, express solution in correct units |

name 2 types of measurement not used frequently in pharmacies anymore | avoirdupois (lbs, oz's and grains) and Apothecary (gal, qts, pts, fl oz,fl dr,minim) |