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Chapter 6

Psychology

QuestionAnswer
maintenance rehearsal the mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20-second duration of short-term memory
chunking increasing the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory by grouping related items together into a single unit, or chunk
working memory the temporary storage and active, conscious manipulation of information needed for complex cognitive tasks, such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving
elaborative rehearsal rehearsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory
procedural memory category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions
clustering organizing items into related groups during recall from long-term memory
semantic network model a model that describes units of information in long-term memory as being organized in a complex network of associations
retrieval the process of accessing stored information
retrieval cue a clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory
retrieval cue failure the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experience a memory phenomenon that involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory, but being temporarily unable to retrieve it
recall (aka free recall) a test of long-term memory that involves retrieving information without the aid of retrieval cue
cued recall a test of long-term memory that involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue
recognition a test of long-term memory that involves identifying correct information out of several possible choices
serial position effect the tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle
encoding specificity principle the principle that when the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding, retrieval is more likely to be successful
context effect the tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting as the original learning of the information
mood congruence an encoding specificity phenomenon in which a given mod tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood
flashbulb memory the recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate
forgetting the inability to recall information that was previously available
encoding failure the inability to recall specific information because of insufficient encoding of the information for storage in long-term memory
deja vu experience a memory illusion characterized by brief but intense feelings of familiarity in a situation that has never been experienced before
source memory or source monitoring memory for when, where, and how a particular experience or piece of information was acquired
prospective memory remembering to do something in the future
decay theory the view that forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes that occur in the brain over time
interference theory the theory that forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another (more similar the memories, the more likely that interference will occur)
retroactive interference forgetting in which a new memory interferes with remembering an old memory; backward-acting memory interference
proactive interference forgetting in which an old memory interferes with remembering a new memory; forward-acting memory interference
suppression motivated forgetting that occurs consciously; a deliberate attempt to not think about and remember specific information
repression motivated forgetting that occurs unconsciously; a memory that is blocked and unavailable to consciousness
misinformation effect a memory-distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information
source confusion a memory distortion that occurs when the true source of the memory is forgotten
false memory a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually happen
schema an organized cluster of information about a particular topic
script a schema for the typical sequence of an everyday event
imagination inflation a memory phenomenon in which vividly imagining an event markedly increases confidence that the event actually occurred
memory trace or engram the hypothetical brain changes associated with a particular stored memory
long-term potentiation a long-lasting increase in synaptic strength between two neurons
amnesia severe memory loss
retrograde amnesia loss of memory, especially for episodic information; back-ward-acting amnesia
memory consolidation the gradual, physical process of converting new long-term memories to stable, enduring memory codes
anterograde amnesia loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia
dementia progressive deterioration and impairment of memory, reasoning, and other cognitive functions occurring as the result of a disease or a condition
Alzheimer's disease (AD) a progressive disease that destroys the brain's neurons, gradually impairing the memory, thinking, language, and other cognitive functions, resulting in the complete inability to care for oneself; the most common cause of dementia
Created by: Nicolekr