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PSY 351 Exam 2

Chapters 5-9

Dynamic Systems Theory development can only be understood as the multiple, mutual, and continuous interaction of all the levels of the developing system, from the molecular to the cultural; doesn’t assume linearity
Experience-expectant processes processes that the brain expects regardless of culture or individual input; visual or language input
Experience-dependent processes processes that are based on specific individual experiences; visual input in a rural community with no TV vs. visual input in a crowded urban community with lots of TV
Experience-expectant processes similar to “sensitive periods”; our brains expect to have certain input, and they can be impaired without proper experience; relates to the over-production of synapses in expectation of experiences; infancy and early development
Experience-dependent processes our brains will not necessarily be functionally impaired without the certain experience; relates to the formation of new synaptic connections triggered by unique experience; later development
Piaget’s general ideas active children construct their own knowledge; adaptation to environment involves assimilation and accommodation
Assimilation fitting in or interpreting of new experiences in terms of what we already understand
Accommodation changing our cognitive structures, what we understand, to fit in with the environment realities
Equilibration individuals naturally seek to maintain or restore balance within their cognitive system
General principles of Piagetian theory development progresses in stages; stages are order invariant, global (apply to child’s entire way of thinking), qualitatively different ways of thinking
Piaget’s four periods of development sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Six sensorimotor substages exercising reflexes (0-1 mos.), developing schemes (1-4 mos.), discovering procedures (4-8 mos.), intentional behavior (8-12 mos.), novelty and exploration (12-18 mos.), mental representation (18-24 mos.)
Exercising reflexes innate, automatic motor responses that are triggered by specific environmental stimuli; sucking when a nipple rubs against the lips (0-1 mos.)
Developing Schemes skilled and generalizable action patterns by which infants act on and understand the world; ones that involve the body (sucking, grasping)
Discovering procedures infants show a clear interest in their environment; accidental behavior produces an entertaining result, so I might as well do it again
Intentional behavior means to ends behavior (8-12 mos.)
Novelty and exploration deliberately and systematically vary behavior to create new schemes and new effects (12-18 mos.)
Mental representation the use of symbols to picture and act on the world internally (18-24 mos.)
Object permanence the understanding that objects exist even when a person cannot see, hear, smell, feel, or taste them
Object permanence and exercising reflexes and developing schemes babies don’t realize that objects exist apart from their own actions on those objects; “I dropped a toy of out my car seat. I guess it doesn’t exist anymore!”
Object permanence and discovering procedures babies start to search for hidden objects, but only a small part of it is visible
Object permanence and intentional behavior baby searches for hidden objects systematically with limits
Object permanence and novelty and exploration baby searches for hidden objects even when they are moved to a new location
Object permanence and mental representation baby searches for hidden objects even when they are moved to a new location and their movement was done without the child’s knowledge
Sensorimotor stage ages 0-2 years; infants understand the world through the overt actions they perform on it
Preoperational stage ages 2-6 (preschool period); defining characteristic is symbolic function, or the ability to use one thing to represent something else; features include language, deferred imitation, and symbolic play
Limits of preoperational thought egocentrism and centration
Egocentrism self-centered view of the world that makes it hard for children to take another person’s perspective
Centration children’s tendency to only focus on one aspect of a problem at a time making it hard for children to understand conservation
Concrete operational stage ages 6-12; the child is more logical, they can attend to multiple aspects of a situation simultaneously and take various perspective; they have “class inclusion” skills; seriation
Formal operation stage ages 12-; not everyone achieves this level of cognitive development; disting. characteristics include hypothetical-deductive reasoning (what-if, might-be, if-then); imagining possibilities, logically evaluating hypotheses, and deducing possible outcomes
Challenges to Piaget some skills occur earlier than Piaget described, some later; all children do not pass through all of the same stages in the same order; some children make quantitative changes in thinking, not only qualitative
Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory child is an active participant in development; development is a fundamentally social and cultural process; language guides thought
Three overarching themes of the sociocultural theory study of mental functioning requires studying change at all levels; individual mental development and thought have social origins; human thought and action are mediated by cultural tools and artifacts
Challenges to Vygotsky how often is learning really as ideal as vygotsky describes?; how do you summarize data across cultures?; socioculture model might neglect the role of basic cognitive skills; too much emphasis on external factors
Sociocultural theory language guides thought
Piagetian theory thought guides language
Piaget’s thoughts cognition guides language; stage theory (discontinuous); child constructs knowledge; developmental change is universal; endpoint is formal operations
Vygotsky’s thoughts language guides cognition; continuous development; social role of knowledge transfer ( ZPD); developmental change varies by culture; is there an endpoint to development?
Information processing goal is to specify the steps by which the mind transforms sensory inputs into cognitive or behavioral outputs; based on a computer metaphor; focuses on nurture; measured through computer stimulations, microgenetic studies, behavioral studies
Information processing all models rely on a theory of memory; this theory is saying that when you’re an infant you are not as efficient, this builds with experience
Four mechanisms for cognitive change encoding, automization, strategy construction, strategy selection
Encoding identify the most important features of objects and events and using the features to form internal representations
Automatization with practice, processing becomes more efficient
Strategy construction we create a variety of strategies to increase efficiency
Strategy selection we pick the most effective strategy depending on the situation
Development of memory in infancy recognition memory and recall memory
Recognition memory once they experience new things, they are making some sort of mental note of what they’re seeing
Recall memory recall things that happened earlier, reenact something that happened previously, pull it out and act on it; deferred imitation
Deferred imitation ability to see a sequence of events happen and be able to recreate it later; increase in efficiency of memory; Piaget, on the other hand, thinks of it as a use of symbols
Development of memory in childhood strategies (mnemonics), content knowledge, metacognition (thinking about thinking)
Explanations to dimensional change card sort informational processing theory, has had more input with the color game so he can’t switch; Piaget, centration; Vygotsky, adult didn’t provide enough scaffolding
Core knowledge we are born with a set of innate capacities, focuses primarily on the skills we are point with
Information processing domain-general, suggest that mechanisms for cognitive change are not dependent on the material to be learned
Core knowledge domain specific, suggest that we have specific innate mechanisms for different types of knowledge
Evolutionary perspective certain types of knowledge are essential for survival
Theorist’s perspective assumption that we are all capable of developing flexibility and skill because we all have these core systems that we are born with
Approximate number system both humans and nonhumans have the ability to do this
Core knowledge based on nature
Information processing based on nurture
Theory of mind the ability to take another persons perspective, often developed during preschool, related to things like having more empathy and doing better in academics
Piaget centration
Vygotsky haven’t learned language to guide their thoughts
Core knowledge theory of mind develops out of an innate capacity for social behavior
Information processing children don’t have well developed neural networks for remembering multiple perspectives yet
Contexts that affect schooling success effects on cognition, teacher effects, effects on motivation, ability tracking and grouping
Why we study IQ one of the most often used measures in school placement; tests capture concepts of cognition covered in previous chapters
Traditional views of IQ Spearman and Cattell
Spearman people have a “g” and an “s” but “s” is not important
Cattell student of Spearman who didn’t think the global “g” was enough; fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
Fluid intelligence an intelligence that is assumed to reflect a more innate, or biologically influenced intelligence such as processing speed; seems to peak around late twenties, early thirties
Crystallized intelligence the abilities we acquire from experience, including general facts and social norms; continues to grow throughout life
How we measure IQ compare children to other children their age
Stanford-Binet provides a general IQ score, originally had good intentions but possible cultural bias
Wechsler still used today, more of a focus on cognitive processes rather than products (verbal, perceptual, working memory, and processing speed); possible cultural bias
Kaufman battery for children overcomes limitations by including more cultural diversity and fairness
Bayle Scales of Infant Development motor skills, sensory-perceptual, early language, and memory in infants
Issues in IQ testing genetics, cultural bias, and influence in home environment (SES)
Steinberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence analytic, creative, and practical intelligence
Analytic intelligence thinking about thinking
Creative intelligence thinking outside the box
Practical intelligence street smarts
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, intrapersonal, and visual-spatial
Schooling Bronfenbrenner style schooling environment has the potential to have a huge influence on a child
Effects of schooling on children middle school malaise (puberty and social environment), competition and comparison, more controlling, more focus on grades, switching classrooms, new peers
Argument for ability grouping and tracking allow teachers to meet more of the students needs and differentiate instruction based on level of achievement
Argument against students in remedial groups receive poorer education, can be stigmatized, and make less learning gains
Created by: AliRutherford