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Chapter 9 Psychology

Three parts of development Physical, Cognitive, Socioemotional processes
Cross- sectional studies Studying groups based on their age ( group of infants vs toddles vs teens)
Cohort effects differences between individuals stemming from time periods in which they were born
Longitudinal studies Follow one group of infants from the time they are born
Nature Biological inheritance
Nurture Environmental experiences
"The developer" Individuals take active roles in their own development
Resilience A person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times in early life
Germinal Period Weeks 1-2, conception, fertilization, zygote
Embryonic Period Weeks 3-8
Fetal Period Months 2-9
Teratogens Agents that cause birth defects: Nicotine, Alcohol, STIs
The effects of teratogens depend on Timing of exposure, genetic characteristics, postnatal environmental
Reflexes Genetically wired behaviors that are crucial for survival
Preferential looking One way in which researchers can give infants a "choice" and measure their preferences
Jean Piaget Children actively construct their cognitive world using three things... schemas, assimilation, and accomidation
Schemas Concepts or frameworks that organize information
Assimilation Incorporate new info into existing schemas
Accomidation Adjusting schemas to new information
Sensorimotor Stage The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experience with physical action. (Birth to 2 years) Coordinate sensations with movements. Object permanence.
Preoperational Stage The child begins to represent the world with words and images. (2-7 years) Symbolic stage, Intuitive reasoning, egocentrism, no reversibility or conservation concept.
Concrete Operational Stage The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets (7-11 years) Operational thinking, classification skills, logical thinking in concrete
Formal Operational Change The adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways (11-adulthood) Abstract and idealistic thought, hypothetical- deductive reasoning
Temperament An individual's behavioral style or characteristic way of responding
Three clusters of temperament Easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
Harlow Study Infant rhesus monkeys, Nourishment or contact that matters? Contact comfort is critical to attachment
Infant Attachment The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver, may provide important foundation for subsequent development
Mary Aimsworth Strange Situation. Caregivers leave infant alone with stranger, then return. Secure attachment or insecure attachment.
Erik Erikson Eight psychological stages of development, each stage represents a developmental task
Authoritarian Parents are controlling and punitive. Correlated with lack of initiative, poor communication skills, social incompetence
Authoritative Parents encourage independence with limits. Correlated with social competence, social responsibility, and self- reliance
Neglectful Parents are generally uninvolved. Correlated with social incompetence and poor self- control
Permissive Parents are involved, but place few limits. Correlated with poor social competence, lack of respect for others, and poor self- control
Lawrence Kohlberg Presented hypothetical moral dilemmas and analyzed responses (3 levels or six stages)
Preconventional Behavior guided by punishments and rewards
Conventional Standards learned from parents and society
Postconventional Contracts, rights, and abstract principles
Three levels of Moral development Pre conventional Level, Conventional Level, and Post conventional Level
Pre-conventional Level No internalization. Stage 1- Heteronomous morality, Stage 2- Individualism, Purpose, and Exchange
Conventional Level Intermediate Internalization. Stage 3- Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity. Stage 4- Social System Morality
Post-conventional Full internalization. Stage 5- Social Contract or Utility and individual rights. Stage 6- Universal Ethical Principles
Puberty Rapid Skeletal and sexual maturation. Puberty begins at beginning of adolescence.
Testosterone (androgen) Genital development, height, voice changes
Estrodiol (estrogen) Breast, uterine, and skeletal development
Early Brain development Amygdala- strong emotions
Late Brain development Prefrontal cortex- increased reasoning and decision making, risk taking decreases
Marcia's four identity statuses Exploration and commitment- clear sense of personal identity
Early adulthood(physical) Most reach the peak of physical development
Middle adulthood(physical) Most lose height, may gain weight. Menopause for women (late 40a or early 50s)
Late adulthood(physical) Accumulated wear and tear, less ability to repair and regenerate
Cellular Clock Theory Maximum # of cell divisions possible, predicts human life span of about 120, shortened telomeres(which protect the ends of chromosomes)
Free- Radical Theory Cause DNA and cell damage
Hormonal Stress Theory Stress hormones linger longer
Early adulthood(cognitive) Less idealistic, reflection on worldview)
Middle adulthood(cognitive) Crystallized intelligent peaks, fluid intelligence peaks, numerical and perceptual speed decline
Late adulthood Speed of processing generally declines, memory retrieval skills decline, wisdom increase, strategy training and physical activity can improve cognitive fuction
John Gottman Giving up some power, solving conflicts together, turning toward each other as
Created by: tstrange