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Abnormal Ch. 2

TermDefinition
Genes Long DNA molecule, the basic physical unit of heredity that appears as a location on a chromosome.
Diathesis-stress model Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.
Reciprocal gene-environment model Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder.
Epigenetics The study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes.
Neuroscience Study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts and emotions
Neuron Individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information.
Synaptic clef Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next.
Neurotransmiters Chemical that crosses the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders.
Brain stem or forebrain Found in most animals, handles most of the essential automatic functions such as breathing, sleeping and moving around in a coordinated way.
Hindbrain Contains the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum. Regulates many automatic activities such as breathing, the pumping action of the heart and digestion.
Cerebellum Controls motor coordination
Midbrain Coordinates movement with sensory input and contains parts of the reticular activating system which contributes to processes of arousal and tension, such as whether we are awake or asleep.
Thalamus and hypothalamus regulate behavior and emotion. these structures function as a relay between the forebrain and the lower areas of the brain stems.
Limbic System Located around the edge of the center of the brain. Helps regulate emotion and to some extent, our ability to learn and to control our impulses. It is also involved with basic drives of sex, aggression, hunger and thirst.
Cerebral Cortex Contains more than 80% of all neurons in the central nervous system. Gives us our distinctly human qualities allowing us to plan, reason, and create.
Left Hemisphere responsible for verbal and other cognitive processes
Right Hemisphere Better at perceiving and creating images.
Temporal lobe Recognizes sights and sounds and with long term memory storage
Parietal Lobe Recognizes sensations of touch and monitoring body positioning
Occipital Lobe Makes sense of visual inputs
Prefrontal Cortex Responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking and reasoning, planning for the future and long term memory. It synthesizes information received from other parts of the brain and decides how to respond. Enables us to relate to the world.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synaptic cleft and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially generalized anxiety.
Serotonin Neurotransmitter of information & coordination of movement, & an inhibition & restraint. Assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors tha may be involved in disorders. Interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia.
Function of Neurotransmitter Stored in sacs at the end of a neuron. Electric jolt makes the sac merge w/ membrane and NT is released into the synapse. Molecules diffuse across the gap & bind receptors. After absorption, receptors release molecules that get broken down and stored.
Dopamine Neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters to aid in exploratory and pleasure seeking behaviors that balances serotonin. Excess is implicated in schizophrenia and its deficit is involved in Parkinsons.
Emotion Pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response.
Affect Conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time.
Emotion & Behavior Basic Patterns of emotional behavior (freeze, escape, approach, attack) that differ in fundamental ways. Emotional behavior is a means of communication.
Physiology of Emotion Emotion is a brain function involving generally the more primitive brain areas. Direct connection between these areas and the eyes may allow emotional processing to bypass the influence of higher cognitive processes.
Cognitive Aspects of Emotion Appraisals, attributions, and other ways of processing the world around you that are fundamental to emotional experience.
Which neurotransmitter appears to reduce overall arousal and dampen emotional responses? Serotonin
Which portion of the brain is responsible for complex cognitive activities such as reasoning, planning and creating? Cerebral Cortex
John is startled by a loud crash in his apartment. His heart rate immediately starts beating rapidly and the pace of his breathing increases. What part of the nervous system is responsible for this physiological response. Central Nervous System
Created by: kane9101