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Vocab Words to Know

TermDefinition
Barognosis perceive the weight of different objects in the hand
Graphesthesia Identify a number or letter drawn on the skin without visual input
Kinesthesia Identify direction and extend of movement of a joint or body part
Stereognosis Identify an object without sight (ex: identify paperclip blindfolded)
Allodynia The sensation of pain in response to a stimulus that would not typically produce pain
Analgesia Absence of pain while remaining conscious
Anesthesia Absence of touch sensation
Causalgia Constant, relentless, burning hyperesthesia and hyperaslesia that develops after a peripheral nerve injury
Dysesthesia Distortion of any of the senses, especially the sense of touch
Hyperesthesia Heightened sensation
Hyperpathia An extreme exaggerated response to touch
Hypesthesia Diminished sensation of touch
Neuralgia severe and multiple shock-like pains that radiate from a specific nerve distribution
Pallanesthesia Loss of vibration sense
Paresthesia Abnormal sensations such as tingling, pins and needles or burning sensations
Tremor Involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movements secondary to basal ganglia lesion. Can be resting, postural, or intention tremors
Tic Sudden, brief, repetitive coordinated movements that usually occur at regular intervals. Can include vocalization of sounds. (ex: Tourette syndrome)
Chorea Movements that are sudden, random, and involuntary - damage of caudate nucleus - like "fidgeting"
Dystonia Sustained muscle contractions that frequently cause twisting, abnormal postures, and repetitive movements.
Athetosis Slow, twisting, writhing movements with large amplitude. Found with many forms of cerebral palsy
Akinesia Inability to initiate movement; commonly seen in Parkinson's
Asthenia Generalized weakness; typically secondary to cerebellar pathology
Ataxia Inability to perform coordinated movements
Clasp-knife response a form of resistance seen during ROM of a hypertonic joint where there is greatest resistance at the initiation of range that lessens with movement throughout rang
Cogwheel rigidity A form of rigidity where resistance to movement has a phasic quality to it; often see in Parkinson's
Dysdiadochokinesia The inability to perform rapidly alternating movements
Dysmetria Inability to control the ROM and force of muscular activity
Hemiballism An involuntary & violent movement of a large body part
Lead pipe rigidity A form of rigidity where there is uniform & constant resistance to ROM; often associated with basal ganglia lesion
Agnosia The inability to interpret information
Agraphesthesia The inability to recognize symbols, letters, or numbers traced on the skin
Agraphia The inability to write due to a brain lesion (typically combined with aphasia)
Alexia The inability to read or comprehend written language
Anosognosia The denial or unawareness of one's illness; often associated with unilateral neglect
Aphasia The inability to communicate or comprehend
Apraxia The inability to perform purposeful learned movements or activities even though no sensory or motor impairment
Astereognosis The inability to recognize objects by sense of touch
Body Schema Having an understanding of the body as a whole and the relationship of its parts to the whole
Constructional Apraxia The inability to reproduce geometric figures and designs; person unable to visually analyze how to perform a task
Decerebrate Rigidity Corticospinal lesion at brainstem resulting in extension of trunk and all extremities
Decorticate Rigidity Corticospinal lesion at diencephalon resulting in trunk & LEs positioned in extension and UEs in flexion
Dysarthria Slurred and impaired speech due to a motor deficit of the tongue or other speech muscles
Dysphagia Inability to properly swallow
Dysprosody Impairment in the rhythm & inflection of speech
Emotional Lability Characteristic of R hemisphere infarct; inability to control emotions & outbursts of inappropriate laughing or crying
Fluent Aphasia Characteristic of receptive aphasia, speech produces functional output regarding articulation, but lacks content & is typically dysprosodic using neologistic jargon
Hemiparesis Weakness one side of the body
Hemiplegia Paralysis one side of the body
Homonymous Hemianopsia Loss of the R or L half of the field of vision in both eyes
Ideational Apraxia Inability to formulate an initial motor plan & sequence tasks where proprioceptive input necessary for movement is impaired
Ideomotor Apraxia A person plans a movement or task, but cannot volitionally perform it.
Neologim Sustitution within a word so severe that it makes the word unrecognizable
Non-fluent Aphasia Characteristic of expressive aphasia, speech is non-functional, effortful, and contains paraphasias. Writing also impaired.
Perseveration State of repeatedly performing the same segment of a task or repeatedly saying the same word/phrase without purpose
Paradoxical Breathing a form of abnormal breathing that is common in tetraplegia where the abdomen rises and the chest is pulled inward during inspiration; on expiration the abdomen falls and chest expands
Tenodesis Patients with tetraplegia that do not possess motor control for grasp can utilize the tight finger flexors in combination with wrist extension to produce a form of grasp
Created by: munscand