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Antibiotici

Principio attivoClasse
Azidocillina, propicillina Beta-lattamine Penicilline semisintetiche Acido-resistenti a spettro simil-penicillinico
Oxacillina, cloxacillina, meticillina Beta-lattamine Penicilline semisintetiche Betalattamasi-resistenti
Ampicillina, amoxicillina (aminopenicilline) carbenicillina (carbossipenicilline) piperacillina (ureidopenicilline) Beta-lattamine Penicilline semisintetiche Ad ampio spettro
mecillina, pivmecillina, bacmecillina (amidinopenicilline) Beta-lattamine Penicilline semisintetiche a spettro mirato contro i Gram -
benzilpenicillina (penicillina G) fenossimetilpenicillina (penicillina V) Beta-lattamine Penicilline naturali
cefalotina, cefazolina, ceftezolo, cefamandolo Beta-lattamine Cefalosporine PARENTERALI a spettro classico, parzialmente resistenti a beta-lattamasi
cefuiroxime, cefmetazolo, cefotaxime, cefoxitina Beta-lattamine Cefalosporine PARENTERALI a spettro diversificato, beta-lattamasi resistenti. SHORT ACTING
cefodizime, ceftriaxone Beta-lattamine Cefalosporine PARENTERALI a spettro diversificato beta-lattamasi resistenti LONG ACTING (fino a 12 ore)
cefaclor, cefalexina Beta-lattamine Cefalosporine ORALI, spettro classico, parzialmente resistenti a beta-lattamasi
cefixime Beta-lattamine Cefalosporine ORALI beta-lattamasi resistenti
imipenem, meropenem Beta-lattamine Carbapenemi
aztreonam Beta-lattamine Monobattamici
clavulanato, sulbactam, tazobactam Beta-lattamine Inibitori di beta-lattamasi
vancomicina, bacitracina, teicoplanina, colistina, polimixina B Antibiotici glicopeptidici
streptomicina, gentamicina, kanamicina, neomicina, spectinomicina, tobramicina Inibitori sintesi proteica Aminoglicosidi
eritromicina, miocamicina, josamicina Inibitori sintesi proteica Macrolidi SHORT ACTING
spiramicina, claritromicina, azitromicina Inibitori sintesi proteica Macrolidi LONG ACTING
lincomicina, clindamicina Inibitori sintesi proteica Lincosamidi
doxiciclina, minociclina, tetraciclina, clortetraciclina Inibitori sintesi proteica Tetracicline
cloramfenicolo Inibitori sintesi proteica
sulfadiazina, sulfadimidina, sulfametossazolo, sulfasalazina Interferiscono con sintesi o azione folati Sulfamidici Inibiscono enzima diidorpteroato sintetasi
trimetoprim Interferisce con sintesi o azione folati Inibisce diidrofolato-reduttasi
cotrimossazolo (Bactrim): sulfmetossazolo + trimetoprim Interferisce con sintesi o azione folati
acido nalidixico, acido oxolinico Interferiscono con replicazione DNA Chinoloni I generazione
acido pipemidico, cinoxacina Interferiscono con replicazione DNA Chinoloni II generazione
enoxacina, norfloxacina, ciprofloxacina, levofloxacina Interferiscono con replicazione DNA Chinoloni III generazione = Fluorochinoloni I generazione SHORT ACTING
perfloxacina Interferiscono con replicazione DNA Chinoloni III generaione = Fluorochinoloni I generazione LONG ACTING
sparfloxacina, trovafloxacina, temofloxacina, gemifloxacina Interferiscono con replicazione DNA Fluorochinoloni II generazione
rifampicina, rifabutina, rifamixina Bloccano RNA polimerasi batterica Rifamicine
tigeciclina Inibitore sintesi proteica (subunità 30S) Glicilcicline
linezolid Inibitore sintesi proteica (subunità 50S)
streptogramine (dalfopristine e quinupristina) Inibitore sintesi proteica
daptomicina Interruzione di membrana cellulare batterica
Created by: Silvia_Sil
 

 



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