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BHS phy sci unit 8

Vocabulary for Chapters 14 & 15

TermDefinition
activation energy Energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
alloy Mixture of a metal with one or more other elements.
catalyst Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction but is not changed or used up in the reaction.
chemical bond Force of attraction between atoms or ions that occurs when atoms share or transfer valence electrons.
chemical equation Symbolic representation of a chemical reaction.
chemical formula Symbol of a chemical compound using element symbols and subscripts that shows the ratio of atoms in the compound.
chemical reaction Process in which some substances, called reactants, change chemically into different substances, called products
combustion reaction Chemical reaction in which a substance reacts quickly with oxygen, producing carbon dioxide, water, and energy; commonly called burning.
concentration Number of particles of a substance in a given volume.
covalent bond Force of attraction that holds together two atoms that share a pair of electrons.
covalent compound Compound forms when atoms of nonmetals form molecules that are held together by covalent bonds.
decomposition reaction Chemical reaction in which one reactant breaks down into two or more products.
endothermic reaction Chemical reaction that needs a constant input of energy to continue because it takes more energy to break bonds in the reactants than is released when new bonds form in the products.
equilibrium Balance between opposing changes, such as the forward and reverse directions of a chemical reaction.
exothermic reaction Chemical reaction that releases energy because it takes less energy to break bonds in the reactants than is released when new bonds form in the product.
hydrogen bond Weak bond that forms between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative atom in another molecule.
ionic bond Force of attraction that holds together positive and negative ions that forms when atoms of a metal give up valence electrons to atoms of a nonmetal.
ionic compound Compound that forms when oppositely charged metal and nonmetal ions are held together in a crystal by ionic bonds.
law of conservation of energy Law stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed in chemical reactions.
metallic bond Force of attraction between a positive metal ion and valence electrons it shares with other ions of the metal.
nonpolar Not having oppositely charged ends, as in nonpolar covalent bond or nonpolar covalent compound.
polar Having oppositely charged ends, as in polar covalent bond or polar covalent compound.
product Substance that is produced in a chemical reaction.
reactant substance that starts a chemical reaction
reaction rate speed at which a chemical reaction occurs
replacement reaction chemical reaction in which ions switch places in one compound (single replacement) or in two compounds (double replacement)
synthesis reaction Chemical reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product.
Created by: ballen1209