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Planning

Teacher-Instructional Planning

QuestionAnswer
Single-Subject Integration A teacher presents a single subject and requires students to solve real problems.
The Coordination Model Two or more teachers cooperate in teaching integrated single subjects.
The Integrated Core Model A single teacher remains with students for two or three periods. A teacher might teach science in the context of math or social studies as the “core” around which the rest of the school day is planned.
The Integrated Double Core Model Two teachers teach integrated “cores” to the students. One might teach math in the context of science, while the other teaches language arts within the context of social studies.
The Self-Contained Core Model A single teacher with multiple credentials teaches one group of students all day within a single meaningful context.
Objective Models 1-Single-Subject Integration, 2-The Coordination, 3-The integrated Core, 4-The Integrated Double Core, 5-The Self-Contained Core,
Educational Goal Example The students will develop a command of Standard English.
Educational Goal Example The students will expand their leisure activities.
Educational Goal Example The students will develop good ethical character.
Educational Goal Example The students will formulate an appreciation for all people.
Educational Goal Example The students will develop good health habits.
Educational goal The student will develop computer literacy.
Informational objective The student will be able to use a word-processing software program.
Instructional objective Given a set of specific requirements, the student will be able to use a word-processing program to write a one-page paper with no errors.
Instructional objectives precisely communicate learning intent. Elements: Performance, product (outcome), conditions, criterion (levels of mastery)
Informational objectives are abbreviated instructional objectives.
Instructional Objective Example Given the voltage and resistance, the student will be able to calculate the current in a series and parallel circuit with 100% accuracy.
Informational Objective Example The student will be able to compute the current in a series or parallel circuit.
Objectives can be classified into three primary categories, or domains of learning, based upon their instructional focus: cognitive (thinking), affective (attitudes or feelings), and psychomotor (physical skills).
Objectives in the cognitive domain are... concerned with students’ thinking and reasoning abilities.
Bloom's Taxonomy... revised: Remembering Retrieve, recognize, and recall relevant knowledge
Bloom's Taxonomy... revised: Understanding Construct meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining
Bloom's Taxonomy... revised: Applying Carry out or use a procedure through executing or implementing
Bloom's Taxonomy... revised: Analyzing Break material into constituent parts; determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing
Bloom's Taxonomy... revised: Evaluating Make judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing
Bloom's Taxonomy... revised: Creating Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing
Objectives in the affective domain are... Objectives in the affective domain are concerned with the development of students’ attitudes, feelings, and emotions.
Affective Domain (Taxonomy) Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organization, Characterization by value
Objectives in the psychomotor domain relate to... the development of muscular abilities that range from simple reflex movements to precision and creativity in performing a skill.
Psychomotor Domain (Taxonomy) Fundamental movement, Generic movement, Ordinative movement, Creative movement
Goal TARGET-broad, generalized statements about what is to be learned
Objective Arrow-foundation upon which you can build lessons and assessments
Affective Objectives change attitude
Psychomotor Objectives build skills
Cognitive Objectives Increase knowledge
Affective Objectives Characterization by value, organization, valuing, responding, receiving
Psychomotor Objectives Observing, initiating, practicing, adapting
Bloom's Taxonomy Evaluation, Synthesis, Analysis, Application, Comprehension, Knowledge
1-Bloom's Taxonomy:Evaluation Check , judge, and critique materials
2-Bloom's Taxonomy:Synthesis Put materials together to create something new
3-Bloom's Taxonomy:Analysis Break information into parts
4-Bloom's Taxonomy:Application Use information
5-Bloom's Taxonomy:Comprehension Obtain meaning
6-Bloom's Taxonomy:Knowledge Remember or recall
ABCD's of Writing Objectives Audience, Behavior, Condition, Degree
Audience Who?
Behavior What you expect?
Condition How they are going to do it?
Degree How much? How you'll measure it?
Behavior verb that describes an observable activity (ex solve compare list explain identify
Condition defines the materials; what the student will be given or not given (ex without the use of a calculator...)
Degree is the objective achieved (ex percentage, time limit)
Step one to planning Diagnosing the learning situation: curriculum, standards, levels of knowledge
Step two to planning Planning course: what will be taught and sequence
Step three to planning Planning the instruction; objectives and strategies to use
Step four to planning Teach lesson; what activities
Step five to planning Evaluate Learning; assessments
Step six to planning Reflection; What worked, why it worked, what needs to change for next the next lesson
Step seven to planning Follow up; changes, new approaches
Background design 1-identify the desired outcome and results, 2-determine what constitutes acceptable evidence of competency, 3-Plan learning activities to achieve these competency levels
Subject-Centered Curriculum Most used; content base, content areas taught in isolation
Student-Centered Curriculum Activity base, student at the center of learning process, involve multiple content areas
Curriculum integration Teaching and learning that draws upon knowledge and skills of a variety of discipline areas... real world situations
Bloom's 3 Taxonomy's Affective, Psychomotor, Cognitive
Standards Year End Target
Standards Targets 1-Knowledge, 2-Reasoning,3-Performance, 4-Products
Knowledge Standard Example Identify sight words
Knowledge Standard Example Identify similes and metaphors
Knowledge Standard Example List defining characteristics of various literary genres
Knowledge Standard Example List defining characteristics of various literary genres
Knowledge Standard Example Count and group concrete manipulative by ones, tens, and hundreds to 1,000
Performance Target Examples Read aloud with fluency and expression
Performance Target Examples Demonstrate the use of self-correction strategies
Performance Target Examples Find and justify the laws of exponents with numeric bases using inductive reasoning
Performance Target Examples Model, identify and describe square, prime and composite numbers
Reasoning Target Examples Make a prediction based on evidence
Reasoning Target Examples distinguish between fact and opinion
Reasoning Target Examples Evaluate information from a variety of resources
Reasoning Target Examples Classify and compare triangles by sides and angles
Product Target Examples Produce a grammatically correct sentence
Product Target Examples Develop a proper paragraph in a written composition
Product Target Example Compose a written composition using the five-step writing process
Product Target Example Create a design with more than one line of symmetry
Metacognition can be simply defined as “thinking about thinking.” Thinking skills and study skills are examples of metacognitive skills. They include invisible thinking skills such as self-interrogation, self-checking, self-monitoring, and analyzing.
Thinking The act of withholding judgment to use knowledge and experience in finding new information, concepts, or conclusions
Critical thinking The ability to analyze complex situations critically, using standards of objectivity and consistency
Creativity The capacity for producing imaginative, original products or ways of solving problems
Metacognition The skill of thinking about thinking
Separate approach Program that focuses instruction on thinking skill development without regard to content
Infusion approach Development of thinking skills in conjunction with regular curriculum; thinking skill instruction is followed by applying the skill to the content being studied
self-discipline approach built on the premise that students can be trusted to evaluate and change their actions so that their behaviors are beneficial and appropriate to themselves and to the class as a whole
reality therapy is a strategy that helps students take responsibility for examining and solving their own problems.
Self-discipline approach View that students can evaluate and change to appropriate behavior
Instructional approach View that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent classroom problems
Desist approach View that the teacher should have full regulatory power in the classroom
Routines Classroom activities that are repetitive and follow a common procedure
Limits The accepted and nonaccepted actions in the classroom
Monitoring Being aware of what is taking place in the classroom
Punishment The application of a negative stimulus or removal of a positive stimulus for inappropriate behavior
Pretest: Purpose to identify difficulties and place students
Pretest: Nature Many questions relate general knowledge
Pretest: Frequency of Administration Varied-usually before instruction
Formative: Purpose To promote learning through feedback
Formative: Nature Few questions related to specifics of instruction
Formative: Frequency of Administration Frequently-usually during instruction
Posttest (Summative): Purpose To assess overall achievement
Posttest (Summative): Nature Many questions related to specific and general knowledge
Posttest (Summative): Frequency of Administration Once-usually final phase of instruction
Diagnostic evaluation Evaluation administered prior to instruction for placement purposes
Formative evaluation The use of evaluation in supplying feedback during the course of a program
Summative A judgement made at the end of a project that determines whether it has been successful or not and commonly used to give grades
Competitive Evaluation Evaluation that forces students to compete with each other
Noncompetitive evaluation Evaluation that does not force students to compete with each other
Performance assessment Assessment in which students demonstrate the behaviors to be measured
Student work sample Collection of students work over a sufficiently long period of time
Portfolio Asystematic, organized collection of evidence that documents growth and development and that represents progress made toward reaching specified goals and objectives
Standard scores a score based on the number of standard deviations an individual is from the mean
Percent The point on a distribution of scores below which a given percentage of individuals fall
Reliability The extent to which individual differences are measured consistently, or the coefficient of stability of scores
Validity The extent to which measurement corresponds with criteria-that is, the ability of a device to measure what it is supposed to measure
Usability The suitability of a measurement device for collecting desired data
Cumulative records holds the information collected on students over the school years
Norm-Referenced Test Interpretation is made when you compare a student's score with that of a norm group in obtaining meaning. it compares individuals with one another.
Criterion-referenced test interpretation is made when you compare an individual's score against a predetermined standard. ex. teacher-made test because students are compared with criteria
pedagogy the art, science, or profession of teaching
automating bolting technology on top of what's already being done, leads to incremental development, doesn't improve writing
informating are you giving people access to information they've never had before
Authoritarian Style leadership is characterized by power, domination, pressure, and criticism
Democratic Style Teacher is kind, caring, and warm but also firm
Reality Therapy is a strategy that helps students take responsibility for examining and solving their own problems. Glasser believes that students are rational beings who can control their behavior if they wish
Instructional approach classroom management in that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems
self-discipline approach view that students can evaluate and change to appropriate behavior
Instructional approach View that well-planned and well-implemented instruction will prevent classroom problems
Desist approach View that teacher should have full regulatory power in the classroom
Set Induction is what you do at the outset of a lesson to get students undivided attention, arouse their interest and establish a conceptual framework fro the information that follows
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Receiving Being aware of or attending to something in the environment
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Receiving Example Individual reads a book passage about civil rights
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Responding Showing some new behaviors as a result of experience
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Responding Example Individual answers questions about the book, reads another book by the same author, another book about civil rights, etc.
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Valuing Showing some definite involvement or commitment
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Valuing Example The individual demonstrates this by voluntarily attending a lecture on civil rights
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Organization Integrating a new value into one's general set of values, giving it some ranking among one's general priorities
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Organization Example The individual arranges a civil rights rally
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Characterization by Value Acting consistently with the new value
Affective Domain Hierarchy: Characterization by Value Example The individual is firmly committed to the value, perhaps becoming a civil rights leader
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Observing Active mental attending of a physical event
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Observing Example The learner watches a more experienced person. Other mental activity, such as reading may be a pert of the observation process.
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Imitating Attempted copying of a physical behavior
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Imitating Example The first steps in learning a skill. The learner is observed and given direction and feedback on performance. Movement is not automatic or smooth.
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Practicing Trying a specific physical activity over and over.
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Practicing Example The skill is preated over and over. The entire sequence is performed repeatedly. Movement is moving towards becoming automatic and smooth.
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Adapting Fine tuning. Making minor adjustments in the physical activity in order to perfect it.
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy: Adapting Example The skill is perfected. A mentor or a coach is often needed to provide an outside perspective on how to improve or adjust as needed for the situation.
ABCD's of Objectives Audience, Behavior, Condition, Degree
Knowledge Ex. Spell words correctly; assessments-quizzes, essays, questioning
Reasoning Ex. Solve math problems; assessments-essays, observations
Performance Ex. Speak foreign language; assessments-observations, rubrics
Product Development Ex. create a web page; assessments-rubrics
Attitudes Ex. Positive attitudes; assessments-observations
7 steps in a model of effective teaching Diagnosing the learning situation, planning the course, planning the instruction, guiding learning activities, evaluating learning, reflecting, following up
Educational Goals are broad and may take an extended period of time to be accomplished
Instructional Objectives precisely communicate learning intent
Informational Objectives are abbreviated instructional objectives. Whereas instructional objectives contain the four elements noted earlier, informational objectives specify only the student performance and the product.
Bloom's Taxonomy!! Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation,
Affective Domain Taxonomy Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organization, Characterization by value or value complex
Psychomotor manual or physical skills
Psychomotor Domain taxonomy Fundamental movement, generic movement, ordinative movement, creative movement
Assessment Concepts: Diagnostic Evaluation administered prior to instruction for placement purposes
Assessment Concepts: Formative evaluation The use of evaluation in supplying feedback during the course of a program
Assessment Concepts: Summative evaluation A judgment made at the end of a project that determines whether it has been successful or not and commonly used to give grades
Assessment Concepts: Competitive evaluation Evaluation that forces students to compete with each other
Assessment Concepts: Noncompetitive evaluation Evaluation that does not force students to compete with each other
Assessment Concepts: Performance Assessment in which students demonstrate the behaviors to be measured
Assessment Concepts: Student work sample Collection of students' work over a sufficiently long period of time
Assessment Concepts: Portfolio A systematic, organized collection of evidence that documents growth and development and that represents progress made toward reaching specified goals and objectives
Assessment Concepts: Standard scores A score based on the number of standard deviations an individual is from the mean
Assessment Concepts: Percent The point on a distribution of scores below which a given percentage of individuals fall
Assessment Concepts: Reliability The extent to which individual differences are measured consistently, or the coefficient of stability of scores
Assessment Concepts: Validity The extent to which measurement corresponds with criteria-that is, the ability of a device to measure what it is supposed to measure
Assessment Concepts: Usability The suitability of a measurement device for collecting desired data
6 Facets of Understanding Explain, Interpret, Apply, Perspective, Empathize
Constructivism!! a theory of knowledge explaining it as being developed in the human being when information comes into contact with existing knowledge that had been generated from previous experiences
Constructivism!! a type of learning theory that explains human learning as an active attempt to construct meaning in the world around us.
Constructivism!! divides learning into two types: accommodation and assimilation. The focus is on the individual's desire and ability to learn, and the teacher or therapist is merely there to help guide self-directed learning.
Direct Teaching!! Teacher controls instruction by presenting information and giving directions to the class; associated with teacher-centered, teacher-controlled classrooms; an instructional procedure for teaching content in the most efficient, straightforward way
Lecture!! Teacher presents information, with no overt interaction with students
Presentation!! Teacher presents information, with limited overt interaction with students
Illustrated Talk!! Presentation that relies heavily on visual aids to convey ideas to students
Teaching lecture!! An oral presentation that allows some participation by the students
Textbook Teaching!! Talking about and teaching from the textbook
Convergent questions allow for only a few right responses
divergent questions allow for many correct responses
factual questions test the student's recall or recognition of information learned by rote
empirical questions require that students integrate or analyze remembered or given information and supply a single, correct, predicatable anser
productive questions do not have a single, correct answer, and it may be impossible to predict what the answer will be
evaluative questions require that students put a value on something or make some kind of judgment. these are special cases of productive questions in that they, too, are often open-ended
factual cognitive/memory; knowledge/comprehension
empirical convergent thinking; application/analysis
productive divergent thinking; synthesis
evaluative evaluative thinking; evaluation
brainstorming is a small group activity used to generate ideas
round robin brainstorming is a small group activity used to generate answers to a question
buzz group is a work group of relatively short duration. Such a group is established quickly to share opinions, viewpoints, or reactions
task group sets out to solve a problem or complete a project. unlike other types of discussion however, task groups involve students in some kind of work or activity, and each group member has a role or an assignment that is clearly defined for all group members.
team pair solo is a combination of team and individual problem-solving activity. students do problems first as a team, then with a partner, and finally on their own
think pair share is a question or problem-solving activity. the teacher gives students a question or gives them a problem to work on. students initially work independently but then move to pairs to discuss their answers or solutions.
three minute review is a group clarification activity
panels which are referred to as roundtables
panels re a special form of the small-group approach. a group of students-usually 5 to 8 prepare in advance an informal discussion about an assigned issue to be presented in front of the class.
discovery learning is a means by which students engage in problem solving in developing knowledge or skills
inquiry basically is a problem-solving technique. unlike discovery, however, the emphasis is placed on the process of investigating the problem, rather than on reaching a correct solution
Heuristic Methods Discovery, Inquiry, such man inquiry, project based learning
Heuristic Methods: Discovery Intentional learning through supervised problem solving following the scientific method
Heuristic Methods: Inquiry Flexible yet systematic process of problem solving
Heuristic Methods: Such man inquiry Inquiry approach whereby students are presented with and asked to explain discrepant events
Heuristic Methods: Project based learning Teaching technique in which projects are given for students to independently or cooperatively complete
Integrated Methods Ordinary demonstration, Inquiry demonstration, Socratic method, Concept attainment, Cooperative learning
Integrated Methods: Ordinary demonstration Individual shows and explains something to class
Integrated Methods: Inquiry demonstration Individual shows class something without explanation; students observe, make inferences, and reach conclusions
Integrated Methods: Socratic method Questioning and interaction to draw information out of students
Integrated Methods: Concept attainment Teaching strategy designed to help students learn concepts and practice analytical thinking skills
Integrated Methods: Cooperative learning Students work together as a team on assigned tasks
Menuing Tic tac toe grid, most common meu, kids choose the activity they want to do on specific days, they are not a preassessment, menus are all about extending hat kids already know, menus are used after instruction is finished and can be used as post-assess
Cubing is a way for kids to look at what is being taught at different angles. 6 sides, describe, compare, associate, analyze, apply argue for/against or evaluate
Raft Role, audience, format, topic
Thinking The act of withholding judgment to use knowledge and experience in finding new information, concepts, or conclusions
Critical thinking The ability to analyze complex situations critically, using standards of objectivity and consistency
Creativity The capacity for producing imaginative, original products or ways of solving problems
Metacognition The skill of thinking about thinking
Separate approach Program that focuses instruction on thinking skill development without regard to content
Infusion approach Development of thinking skills in conjunction with regular curriculum; thinking skill instruction is followed by applying the skill to the content being studied
Order of planning Curriculum Mapping, Unit, Weekly, Daily
Think, Pair, Share Individually, 2 people, group
Step Interview A few questions, students interview each other. (ex get to know each other, content purpose)
Jigsaw Student's are the experts (assigned material, teach assigned group)
Structured Academic Controversy Pros and cons of a subject
Inside Outside circles even number of students; face each other in partners, rotate opposite direction, questions or topic (RAPID FIRE)
Physical Engagement Moving around
Time allocation How important something is means you spend more time
Metacognition Thinking skills for recalling content; self-interrogation, self checking, self monitoring, analyzing, memory aides (mnemonics)
Memory Aids Mnemonics
Differentiated Instruction (differentiation) instruction or curriculum that has been modified from standard approach to meet the needs of particular students
Podcast is a digital medium of an episodic series of audio, video, PDF or ePub files from the web and downloaded
Instructional strategy methodology and lesson procedure
Methodology acts as the student motivator-planned patterned behaviors that are definite behaviors that are definite steps by which the teacher influences learning
Lesson procedure Sequence of steps that help students reach their learning objectives
Backward Design 1-Identify desired outcomes and results; 2-Determine what constitutes acceptable evidence of competency, 3-Plan learning activities to achieve these competency levels
Concept maps mind maps
Scribes Someone writing info
Manipulatives Hands on to get concepts
Pseudo Writing false writing or pretend
Recorded Books Books on Tape
One-way listening listen without talking
two-way listening involve and exchange information
Empathic listening Listening with feeling
Pretest to identify difficulties and place students
Formative to promote learning through feedback
Posttest (Summative) to assess overall achievement
Rubric Summarization of the performance in levels
Performance assessment Demonstrate specific skills
Portfolio Collection of students work and progress
Krathwohl Affective: Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organization, Characterization by value
Harrow Psychomotor: Reflex, Basic Perceptual, Physical, Skilled, Non-Discursive Communication
Bloom Cognitive-Learning: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Education
Standard a level to reach-acceptable
Objective result or product of instruction
Summative Summary or sum of items that are understood and comprehension
RRVOC Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organization, Characterization by value
RBPPSN Reflex, Basic, Perceptual, Physical, Skilled, Non-Discursive Communication
KCAASE Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Education
Assistive Technology (AT) Special tool designed to assist individuals who have special needs
ELL Learners who are beginning to learn English as anew language or have already gained some proficiency in English
Limited English proficient (LEP) A designation for students with limited ability to understand, read, speak, or write English whose first or primary language isn't English.
Metaverbal component Underlying, or hidden, message that cannot be directly attributed to the meaning of the words or how they are spoken.
Nonverbal communication Nonlingustic communication or the sending of messages without the use of words. facial language; body language (kinesics); use of the voice; use of space, motion, and time.
Modeling Person demonstrating or acting as he or she wants others to act and communicating examples of the values, ideas, and behaviors to be acquired by students.
Computer-based instruction (CBI) Use of computers for presenting instructional information, asking questions, and interacting with students. Individualized instruction administered by a computer.
Reality Therapy William Glasser's personality theory of therapy in which individuals are helped to become responsible and able to satisfy their needs in the real world.
Teacher effectiveness training (TET) Self-discipline approach to classroom management conceived by Thomas Gordon that stresses establishment of positive working relationships between teachers and students. Key is based on who owns the problem when one develops-teacher or student.
Withitness Ability of a teacher to be aware of what is going on in all parts of the classroom and the ability to communicate this awareness.
Overlapping Engaging in or supervising several activities simultaneously.
Ripple effect Spread of behaviors from one individual to others through imitation.
Subject-centered curriculum School curriculum patterns wherein subjects are separated into distinct courses of study.
Student-centered curriculum Activity curriculum that focuses on student needs and interests.
Curriculum integration Form of teaching and learning that draws upon the knowledge and skills of a variety of discipline areas as they become necessary in problem solving.
Objective Anticipated result or product of instruction. Unambiguous statement of instructional intent.
Instructional objective Narrow four-component statement of learning intent. The components are the performance, a product, the conditions, and the criterion.
Informational objectives Statements of instructional intent that are an abbreviation of instructional objectives with only the performance and product specified.
Teacher-student planning participatory process that directly involves students in instructional planning.
Course planning Broadest and most general type of instruction planning, usually divided into a sequence of units of study.
Unit plan Plan that links goals and objectives, content, activities, resources and materials, and evaluation for a particular unit of study for a course.
Thematic unit Unit of instruction planned by a team of teachers that is organized for interdisciplinary/cross-curricular teaching over a block of time.
Weekly plan Condensed version of a week's daily lesson plans, written on a short form provided by the school.
Daily lesson plan A detailed outline used to structure instructional activities for a single day and to help with the flow of the instruction.
Block scheduling An instructional delivery pattern that divides school time into instructional blocks ranging from 20 to 110 minutes.
Team Planning Coordination of teachers' instructional approaches among disciplines.
Set induction Something a teacher does at the outset of a lesson to get student's undivided attention, arouse their interest, and establish a conceptual framework.
Instructional strategy The global plan for teaching a particular lesson consisting of the methodology to be used and the sequence of steps to be followed for implementing the lesson activities.
Methodology Planned patterned behaviors that are definite steps through which the teacher influences learning.
Minimum competency tests exit tests designed to ascertain whether students have achieved basic levels of performance in basic skill areas-such as reading, writing, and computation-before they can graduate or continue to the next level.
Diagnostic evaluation Evaluation administered prior to instruction to assess students' knowledge and abilities so that appropriate instruction can be provided.
Normal curve Bell-shaped distribution. Mathematical construct divided into equal segments that reflect the natural distribution of all sorts of things in nature.
Standard deviation Extent to which scores are spread out around the mean.
Authentic assessment An assessment procedure that has students demonstrate their ability to perform a particular task in real-life situation.
Performance assessment Assessment in which students demonstrate the behaviors to be measured.
Reliability Extent to which individual responses are measured consistently. The coefficient of stability of scores.
Validity Ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure.
Usability Suitability of a measurement device to collect desired data.
Checklist List of criteria or characteristics against which a performance or an end product is to be judged
Questionaire Lists of written statements regarding attitudes, feelings, and opinions to which the reader must respond.
Absolute grading standard Students grades given relative to performance against an established criterion-for ex 90-100% A
Relative grading standard Student's grades given relative to performance of other students... grading on the curve.
Point grading system Student work is allocated points and grades are assigned according to an established grade range.
Weighted grading system Assignments are given a letter grade, and all grades are weighted in determining the final grade.
Percentage grading system Percentage correct is recorded for each assignment, and an average is calculated to determine a final grade.
Transfer Ability to use classroom-acquired information outside the classroom or in different subjects.
Exposition teaching Teaching method in which some authority-teacher, textbook, film, or microcomputer-presents information without over interaction taking place between the authority and the students.
Factual questions Questions that require the recall of information through the mental processes of recognition and rote memory.
Empirical questions Questions that require students to integrate or analyze remembered or given information and supply a single, correct predictable answer.
Productive questions Broad, open-ended questions with many correct responses that require students to use their imagination, think creatively, and produce something unique.
Evaluative questions Questions that require that a judgment be made or a value be put on something.
Focusing questions Questions used to direct students attention to a lesson or to the content of a lesson.
Prompting questions Questions that include the use of hints to aid students in answering or in correcting an initial response.
Probing questions Questions that follow a student response and require the student to think and respond more thoroughly than in the initial response.
Redirecting Asking different individuals to respond to a question in light of, or to add new insight to, the previous responses.
Halting time teacher's pause in talking, used for giving students time to think about presented materials and directions
Authentic methods Student-centered instruction with a wide range of participatory activities.
Panel Instructional technique in which five to eight students prepare and discuss a topic in front of a class. Also known as a roundtable.
Constructivist approach Approach to learning that emphasizes that individuals actively construct knowledge and understanding.
Inquiry demonstration Instructional method in which students are asked only to observe in silence.
Socratic method Instructional method in which a questioning and interaction sequence is used to draw information out of students.
Concept attainment Strategy designed to teach concepts through the presentation of examples and non examples.
Graphic organizers Pictorial or graphical ways to organize written or oral information.
Simulation Instructional technique in which students are involved in models of artificial situations and/or events designed to provide no-risk experiences for students. Also referred to as educational games.
Drill Fixation of specific associations for automatic recall.
Creative thinking Process of assembling information to develop a whole new understanding of a concept or idea. Four stages generally associated with creative thought are preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification.
Separate approach View suggested by Reuven Feuerstein that students need special, focused instruction on thinking skills.
Infusion approach Method of teaching thinking skills in which desired skill is used in conjunction with and incorporated into regular curriculum.
Inductive thinking Thinking that asks students to make generalizations based on knowledge of specific examples and details.
constructivism perspective “I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand”
Created by: DanceLots