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Fluid & Electrolyte

Nursing-fluids and electrolytes test 2

Osmolality measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles of solute per 1 L of solution.
Sources of Water Oral, foods, from oxidation, parenteral fluids, enteral feedings
"Normal" water loss skin, lungs, GI tract, kidneys, insensible loss
water loss from lungs 300-400ml/day
water loss from GI tract 100-200 ml/day
water loss from insensible loss 600ml/day (evaporation)
Isotonic contraction (Def) Na and water lost in isotonic proportions
Isotonic contraction causes blood loss, vomiting, diarrhea, kidney disease, diuretics
Isotonic Contraction treatment Isotonic solutions (0.9 NS, lactated ringers) 0.9 NS only fluids used in blood transfusion process
Hypertonic Contraction (def) loss of water exceeds loss of sodium
Hypertonic contraction causes excessive sweating, osmotic diuresis, concentrated feedings in infants, burns, CNS disorders
hypertonic contraction treatment hypotonic fluids (1/4 NS, free water, D5W)
Hypotonic Contraction (def) loss of sodium exceeds loss of water
Hypotonic contraction causes excessive sodium loss through kidneys-diuretic therapy, chronic renal insufficiency, lack of aldosterone
Hypotonic contraction treatment 0.9% NS if mild, Hypertonic solutions (3% NS) if severe
fluid volume deficit- monitor: I & O, DAILY WEIGHTS (2.2lbs=1000ml fluid), skin turgor, increased UOP w/ normal specific gravity, VS, clear sensorium, labs
Created by: mcwethe