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Management Test 2

Ch 8-10

TermDefinition
accountability Describes expectation that managers must report and justify work results to the managers above them
adaptive perspective Perspective of organizational culture that assumes that the most effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environmental change.
adhocracy culture Type of organizational culture that has an external focus and values flexibility.
authority The right to perform or command; also, the rights inherent in a managerial position to make decisions, give orders, and utilize resources.
birth stage The nonbureaucratic stage, the stage in which the organization is created.
boundaryless organization A fluid, highly adaptive organization whose members, linked by information technology, come together to collaborate on common tasks; the collaborators may include competitors, suppliers, and customers.
centralized authority Organizational structure in which important decisions are made by upper managers—power is concentrated at the top.
clan culture Type of organizational culture that has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control.
common purpose A goal that unifies employees or members and gives everyone an understanding of the organization's reason for being.
contingency design The process of fitting the organization to its environment.
coordinated effort The coordination of individual efforts into a group or organization-wide effort.
customer divisions Divisional structures in which activities are grouped around common customers or clients.
decentralized authority Organizational structure in which important decisions are made by middle-level and supervisory-level managers—power is delegated throughout the organization.
delegation The process of assigning managerial authority and responsibility to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy.
differentiation The tendency of the parts of an organization to disperse and fragment.
division of labor Also known as work specialization; arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people. The work is divided into particular tasks assigned to particular workers.
divisional structure The third type of organizational structure, whereby people with diverse occupational specialties are put together in formal groups according to products and/or services, customers and/ or clients, or geographic regions.
enacted values Values and norms actually exhibited in the organization.
espoused values Explicitly stated values and norms preferred by an organization.
fit perspective Perspective of organizational culture that assumes that an organization's culture must align, or fit, with its business or strategic context.
functional structure The second type of organizational structure, whereby people with similar occupational specialties are put together in formal groups.
geographical divisions Divisional structures in which activities are grouped around defined regional locations.
hero A person whose accomplishments embody the values of the organization.
hierarchy culture Type of organizational culture that has an internal focus and values stability and control over flexibility.
hierarchy of authority Also known as chain of command; a control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time.
hollow structure Often called network structure, structure in which the organization has a central core of key functions and outsources other functions to vendors who can do them cheaper or faster.
horizontal design Arrangement in which teams or workgroups, either temporary or permanent, are used to improve collaboration and work on shared tasks by breaking down internal boundaries.
integration The tendency of the parts of an organization to draw together to achieve a common purpose.
line managers Managers who have the authority to make decisions and usually have people reporting to them.
market culture Type of organizational culture that has a strong external focus and values stability and control.
matrix structure Fourth type of organizational structure, which combines functional and divisional chains of command in a grid so that there are two command structures—vertical and horizontal.
maturity stage A stage when the organization becomes very bureaucratic, large, and mechanistic. Also the third stage in the product life cycle; period in which the product starts to fall out of favor, and sales and profits fall off.
mechanistic organization Organization in which authority is centralized, tasks and rules are clearly specified, and employees are closely supervised.
midlife stage A period of growth evolving into stability when the organization becomes bureaucratic.
modular structure Seventh type of organizational structure, in which a firm assembles product chunks, or modules, provided by outside contractors.
network structure Also called hollow structure.
organic organization Organization in which authority is decentralized, there are fewer rules and procedures, and networks of employees are encouraged to cooperate and respond quickly to unexpected tasks.
organization A group of people who work together to achieve some specific purpose. A system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people.
organization chart Box-and-lines illustration of the formal relationships of positions of authority and the organization's official positions or work specializations.
organizational culture Sometimes called corporate culture; system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.
organizational design Creating the optimal structures of accountability and responsibility that an organization uses to execute its strategies.
organizational life cycle Four-stage cycle with a natural sequence of stages: birth, youth, midlife, and maturity.
organizational structure A formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinate and motivates an organization's members so that they can work together to achieve the organization's goals.
product divisions Divisional structures in which activities are grouped around similar products or services.
responsibility The obligation one has to perform the assigned tasks.
rites and rituals The activities and ceremonies, planned and unplanned, that celebrate important occasions and accomplishments in an organization's life.
simple structure The first type of organizational structure, whereby an organization has authority centralized in a single person, as well as a flat hierarchy, few rules, and low work specialization.
span of control (management) The number of people reporting directly to a given manager.
staff personnel Staff with advisory functions; they provide advice, recommendations, and research to line managers.
story A narrative based on true events, which is repeated—and sometimes embellished upon—to emphasize a particular value.
strength perspective Perspective of organizational culture that assumes that the strength of a corporate culture is related to a firm's long-term financial performance.
symbol An object, act, quality, or event that conveys meaning to others.
unity of command Principle that stresses an employee should report to no more than one manager in order to avoid conflicting priorities and demands.
virtual organizational An organization whose members are geographically apart, usually working with e-mail, collaborative computing, and other computer connections.
virtual structure A company outside a company that is created specifically to respond to an exceptional market opportunity that is often temporary.
youth stage The stage in which the organization is in a pre-bureaucratic phase, one of growth and expansion.
360 degree assessment A performance appraisal in which employees are appraised not only by their managerial superiors but also by peers, subordinates, and sometimes clients.
adverse impact Effect an organization has when it uses an employment practice or procedure that results in unfavorable outcomes to a protected class (such as Hispanics) over another group of people (such as non-Hispanic whites).
affirmative action The focus on achieving equality of opportunity.
arbitration The process in which a neutral third party, an arbitrator, listens to both parties in a dispute and makes a decision that the parties have agreed will be binding on them.
assessment center Company department where management candidates participate in activities for a few days while being assessed by evaluators.
base pay Consists of the basic wage or salary paid employees in exchange for doing their jobs.
behavioral-description interview Type of structured interview in which the interviewer explores what applicants have done in the past.
behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) Employee gradations in performance rated according to scales of specific behaviors.
benefits Additional nonmonetary forms of compensation.
collective bargaining Negotiations between management and employees regarding disputes over compensation, benefits, working conditions, and job security.
compensation Payment comprising three parts: wages or salaries, incentives, and benefits.
computer-assisted instruction (CAI) clause Training in which computers are used to provide additional help or to reduce instructional time.
cost of living adjustment (COLA) Clause in a union contract that ties future wage increases to increases in the cost of living.
development The education of professionals and managers in the skills they will need to do their jobs in the future.
disparate treatment Results when employees from protected groups (such as disabled individuals) are intentionally treated differently.
employment tests Tests legally considered to consist of any procedure used in the employment selection process.
equal employment opportunity commission (EEO) U.S. panel whose job it is to enforce antidiscrimination and other employment related laws.
external recruiting Attracting job applicants from outside the organization.
fair labor standards act Legislation passed in 1938 that established minimum living standards for workers engaged in interstate commerce, including provision of a federal minimum wage.
forced ranking performance review systems Performance review systems whereby all employees within a business unit are ranked against one another, and grades are distributed along some sort of bell curve, like students being graded in a college course.
formal appraisals Appraisals conducted at specific times throughout the year and based on performance measures that have been established in advance.
givebacks Negotiation tactic in which the union agrees to give up previous wage or benefit gains in return for something else.
grievance Complaint by an employee that management has violated the terms of the labor-management agreement.
human capital Economic or productive potential of employee knowledge, experience, and actions.
human resource inventory A report listing an organization's employees by name, education, training, languages, and other important information.
human resource management (HR) The activities managers perform to plan for, attract, develop, and retain a workforce.
informal appraisals Appraisals conducted on an unscheduled basis and consisting of less rigorous indications of employee performance than those used in formal appraisals.
internal recruiting Hiring from the inside, or making people already employed by the organization aware of job openings.
job analysis The determination of the basic elements of a job.
job description A summary of what the holder of the job does and how and why he or she does it.
job posting Placing information about job vacancies and qualifications on bulletin boards, in newsletters, and on the organization's intranet.
job specification Description of the minimum qualifications a person must have to perform the job successfully.
knowledge worker Someone whose occupation is principally concerned with generating or interpreting information, as opposed to manual labor.
labor unions Organizations of employees formed to protect and advance their members' interests by bargaining with management over job-related issues.
mediation The process in which a neutral third party, a mediator, listens to both sides in a dispute, makes suggestions, and encourages them to agree on a solution.
national labor relations board (NLRB) Legislated in 1935, U.S. commission that enforces procedures whereby employees may vote to have a union and for collective bargaining.
objective appraisals Also called results appraisals; performance evaluations that are based on facts and that are often numerical.
orientation Process of helping a newcomer fit smoothly into the job and the organization.
performance appraisals Assessment of an employee's performance and the provision of feedback.
performance management The continuous cycle of improving job performance through goal setting, feedback and coaching, and rewards and positive reinforcement.
realistic job preview A picture of both positive and negative features of the job and organization given to a job candidate before he or she is hired.
recruiting The process of locating and attracting qualified applicants for jobs open in the organization.
reliability Degree to which a test measures the same thing consistently, so that an individual's score remains about the same over time, assuming the characteristics being measured also remain the same.
right to work laws Statutes that prohibit employees from being required to join a union as a condition of employment.
selection process The screening of job applicants to hire the best candidate.
sexual harassment Unwanted sexual attention that creates an adverse work environment.
situational interview A structured interview in which the interviewer focuses on hypothetical situations.
social capital Economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships.
strategic human resource planning The development of a systematic, comprehensive strategy for (1) understanding current employee needs and (2) predicting future employee needs.
structured interview Interview in which the interviewer asks each applicant the same questions and then compares the responses to a standardized set of answers.
subjective appraisals Performance evaluations based on a manager's perceptions of an employee's traits or behaviors.
training Educating technical and operational employees in how to better do their current jobs.
two tier wage contracts Contracts in which new employees are paid less or receive lesser benefits than veteran employees have.
union security clause Part of a labor-management agreement that states that employees who receive union benefits must join the union, or at least pay dues to it.
unstructured interview Interview in which the interviewer asks probing questions to find out what the applicant is like.
validity Extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure and extent to which it is free of bias.
workplace discrimination Type of discrimination that occurs when people are hired or promoted—or denied hiring or promotion—for reasons not relevant to the job.
adaptive change Reintroduction of a familiar practice, the kind of change that has already been experienced within the same organization.
benchmarking A process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations.
change agent A person inside or outside the organization who can be a catalyst in helping deal with old problems in new ways.
creativity The process of developing something new or unique.
incremental innovations The creation of products, services, or technologies that modify existing ones.
innovative change The introduction of a practice that is new to the organization.
intervention Interference in an attempt to correct a problem.
organizational development (OD) Set of techniques for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective.
proactive change Planned change; making carefully thought-out changes in anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities; opposite of reactive change.
process innovation A change in the way a product or service is conceived, manufactured, or disseminated.
product innovation A change in the appearance or the performance of a product or a service or the creation of a new one.
radical innovations New products, services, or technologies that replace existing ones.
radically innovative change Change involving a practice that is new to the industry.
reactive change Change made in response to problems or opportunities as they arise; compare Proactive change.
resistance to change An emotional/behavioral response to real or imagined threats to an established work routine.
seeds of innovation The starting point for organizational innovation
technology All tools & ideas for transforming material data or labor(inputs) to goods or services(outputs). Applies not just to computers, any machine process that enables an organization to gain competitive advantage n changing materials used to make fin product
Created by: arry80