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Psych Exam

TermDefinition
Nomothetic Research observe groups with same disorder to develop general laws
Id unconscious physical entity present at birth, representing basic drives
Ego psychical entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives
Superego psychical entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society
Orientation increased alertness to stimulus
Habituation learned unresponsiveness to stimulus (becoming familiar to stimulus)
Social Learning Theory learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of others and consequences of that behavior
Biological preparedness idea that we are inherently inclined to form associations between certain stimuli and responses
Consummatory responses uncontrollable responses such as chewing, licking, swallowing, etc.
Spontaneous recovery re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay (classical conditioning)
Generalization extent to which results apply to a range of individuals not included in the study
Discrimination subject learns to respond under certain conditions and not to respond under other conditions
Conditioned emotional responses emotional response resulting from classical conditioning where neutral stimulus is associated with a painful experience
Law of effect behaviors strengthened or weakened by environmental events that follow them
Primary reinforcers biologically predisposed reinforcers
Secondary reinforcers learned reinforcers
Paradigm distinct concept or thought pattern
Gene long DNA molecules, basic physical units of heredity
Chromosome structure of DNA, protein, and RNA found in cells
Genotype specific genetic makeup of an individual
Phenotype observable characteristics or behaviors of an individual
Gene-environment interaction interactions between genes and the environment
Reciprocal Gene-environment interaction people have genetically inherited tendencies that cause behaviors that lead to the development of disorders
Neurotransmitters chemicals that transmit impulses between neurons
Reuptake neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released
Hindbrain lowest part of brain stem, regulates many automatic body functions like breathing and digestion (includes medulla, pons, & cerebellum
Midbrain section of brain that coordinates movement and contributes to processes of arousal and tension
Forebrain top section of brain that includes limbic system, basal ganglia, caudate nucleus, and cerebral cortex
Limbic system part of forebrain involved in emotion, ability to learn and to control impulses, and the regulation of sex, hunger, thirst, and aggression drives
Basal ganglia brain area at the base of the forebrain that seems to control motor behavior and to be involved in OCD
Hypothalamus part of the brain that lies between the thalamus and is broadly involved in the regulation of behavior and emotion
Endocrine system network of glands that affect bodily functions by releasing hormones into the blood stream
Pituitary part of endocrine system that regulates stress, growth, reproduction, lactation
Adrenal glands release hormones
Autonomic nervous system part of peripheral nervous system that regulates cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel), endocrine, and digestive functions
Sympathetic nervous system prepares body for activity or respond to stressors
Parasympathetic nervous system regulates body functions (for example, digestion) while activity level is low - balances sympathetic nervous system activity
Approach-avoidance conflict one goal has both positive and negative consequences
Taxonomy system of naming and classification in science
Categorical classification system every diagnosis has a psychophysiological cause
Dimensional classification system notes a variety of cognitions, moods, and behaviors and quantifies them on a scale
Projective tests personality test in which subject responds to an ambiguous stimuli
Multiaxial classification system categorization system employing several dimensions or axes, each used for differentiating among categories
Projective hypothesis individual puts structure on an ambiguous situation, fool-proof access to conscious and unconscious needs
Correlational method scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life
Scientific method create research to predict and perhaps influence mental processes or behaviors
Directionality problem whether a relationship exists or not
Third variable problem might be something else causing correlation
Analog experiments type of study that attempts to replicate a real-life situation under controlled conditions
Response prevention making a choice not to do a compulsive behavior
Exposure and ritual prevention person exposed to feared stimulus refuses to respond - therapeutic
Anterior cingulate regulates blood pressure and heart rate, involved in decision making, impulse control, empathy, anticipation, and emotion
Orbitofrontal cortex located in the prefrontal lobe, involved in emotion and reward in decision making
Locus ceruleus area in hindbrain involved in alarm reactions, may be related to panic states
Imaginal exposure systematic exposure of emotions or traumatic experiences in the imagination
Secondary gain (sick role) anything beyond primary gain that a person may obtain, such as attention, sympathy, and/or avoidance of responsibilities
Primary gain anxiety reduction from the display of psychological symptoms
HPA axis brain-endocrine system connection implicated in some psychological disorders
Adrenal medulla part of adrenal gland, secretes hormones in response to stimulation by neurons
Adrenal cortex mediates the stress response
Hippocampus part of brain's limbic system - regulates emotions and ability to control impulses
Psychoneuroimmunology study of psychological influences on the neurological responding involved in the body's immune response
Humoral branch of the immune system operates in blood and other bodily fluids to develop antibodies and neutralize antigens
Cellular branch of the immune system protects body cells against parasite and viral infections
Macrophages attack foreign cells, involved in defense mechanisms
Thymus gland organ in the immune system, critical to adaptive immune system
HAART decreases total burden of HIV, maintains function of the immune system
CBT Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management - focuses on identifying and changing the behaviors and thoughts that feed an anxiety disorder
Psychoncology study of psychological factors involved in course and treatment of cancer
CVA cerebrovascular accident - AKA stroke - loss of brain function due to disturbance in blood supply to the brain
A-delta fibers sensory fibers that respond to stimuli such as cold and pressure - provide first pain information - allow pain to enter
A-beta fibers stop pain from entering
SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor) typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders (citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline)
BAS (Behavioral Activation System) an individual's disposition to pursue and achieve goals, activated when individual receives rewarding stimuli
BIS (Behavioral Inhibition System) activated in times of punishment or negative events, results in avoidance of negative events
FFS (Fight or Flight System) physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat (first stage of General Adaptation Syndrome)
MMPI (Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory) used by mental healthy professionals to assess and diagnose mental illness
GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable, and irrational worry lasting at least six months - interferes with daily functioning
SAD (Social Anxiety Disorder) irrational fear of social situations, marked and persistent anxiety, lasting six or more months
Panic Disorder (w & w/o Agoraphobia) fear and avoidance of situations the person believes might induce a dreaded panic disorder
OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) disorder in which the threat is internal either obsessions or compulsions: obsessions = intrusive and nonsensical thoughts compulsions = thoughts or actions used to suppress obsessions and provide relief
Tricyclics antidepressants that affect brain chemicals to ease depression symptoms (amitriptyline, amoxapine, desipramine, doxepin, imipramine, nortriptypine, protriptyline, trimipramine)
Benzodiazepines anti-depressant, things ending in -zepam mostly (also xanax, valium, ambien)
PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) anxiety disorder that may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, persistent re-experiencing through flashbacks, dreams, etc.
Reactive Attachment Disorder severe, relatively uncommon disorder that can affect children - failure to form natural attachments to primary caregiver in childhood
Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder children interact with strangers like they interact with parents or parental figures - previously a subtype of Reactive Attachment Disorder
General Adaptation Syndrome three staged response to stress: alarm, resistance, exhaustion
SAM (Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary pathway) describes first part of stress response, activates fight or flight
Endogenous opioids pain relieving system
Three parts of brain hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
Directionality problem issue of correlation - which causes which?
Seven popular conceptions around what is "normal" Suffering, maladaptiveness, irrationality and incomprehensibility, unpredictability and loss of control, vividness and unconventionality, observer discomfort, violation of moral and ideal standards
Passive correlation biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child
Active correlation individual seeks out environment they find compatible and stimulating
Evocative correlation individual's genotype elicits certain types of physical and social environments
Compensatory model traits and factors make up for risk factors
Protective factors model factors protect individual from bad effects of the risk factors
Challenge model strategies learned early to deal with early stress make individual more resilient to later stress
Aversive motivation system avoidance behaviors - person wants to avoid bad stimulus
Anxious apprehension associated with GAD - worry, cognitive anxiety, anticipatory anxiety, verbal rumination about negative expectations, muscle tension
Anxious arousal associated with PD - panic, intense fear, shortness of breath, altered heart rate, dizziness, sweating
Mason factors define types of stress: novelty, uncertainty, unpredictability, uncontrollability, ego-involvement
Types of neurotransmitters acetylecholine, dopamine, endorphins, norepinephrine, seratonin, GABA
Acetylecholine excites muscles
Dopamine inhibits muscles
Endorphins provides relief against pain
Norepinephrine regulates arousal
Seratonin lowers energy level
GABA lowers arousal and reduces anxiety
Defense mechanisms repression, suppression, denial, displacement, sublimation, reaction formation, regression, projection
Stages of psychosexual development oral, anal, phallic,
Created by: ekahn