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RADT 313 Unit 3

Digestive System

What is Inflammation of the small intestine; caused by bacterial or protozoan organisms or by other environmental factor Enteritis
What is inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin, involving any part of the GI tract; commonly involving the terminal ileum, with scarring and thickening of the bowel wall Regional enteritis/Crohn's Disease
What is a common infection of the lumen of the small intestine that is caused by the flagellate protozoan which is spread by contaminated food and drink Giardiasis
What is an obstruction of the small intestine Ileus
Cessation of peristalsis. caused by infection, certain drugs, and postsurgical complications is what Adynamic
What is Fairly common birth defect that is seen in the ileum of the small bowel Meckel's Diverticulum
_____ means new growth, can be benign or malignant Neoplasm
T/F Adenomas and leiomyomas are common benign tumors of the small intestine True
T/F Lymphomas are the most common tumors of the small bowel False
Type of malignant tumor that produce short and sharp napkin-ring defects within the lumen Adenocarcinoma
Condition which patient’s GI tract is unable to process and absorb certain proteins and dietary fats is known as what Sprue
Rare disorder of proximal small bowel that shows distorted loops of small intestine Whipples Disease
What is the mAs of a PA Small bowel series 4 mAs
Where do you center for a PA Small bowel series(15-30 minutes)? 2” above Iliac Crest
Where is the centering point for a PA Small bowel(hourly)? At the Iliac Crest
What is the kVp of a PA Small Bowel Series? 125 kVp
Where is the CR for a PA Barium Enema? At the Iliac Crest
What is the kV range for using single contrast? 100-125 kV
What is the kV range for using double contrast? 90-100 kV
Where is the CR of an RAO Barium Enema? At the Iliac Crest and 1” left of the MSP
Where is the CR of an LAO Barium Enema? 1-2” above Iliac Crest and 1” right of the MSP
Where is the CR of a RPO/LPO Barium Enema? At Iliac Crest and lateral to elevated side of MSP
What is the mAs of a lateral decubitus barium enema? 6 mAs
Central ray for a lateral decubitus barium enema is where? At the iliac crest and MSP
State mAs for lateral rectum or ventral decubitus barium enema 64 mAs
What is the CR of an AP axial barium enema? 2” inferior ASIS and MSP
What is the angle for the AP axial BE? 30-40 degrees
Where is the CR for an LPO axial BE? 2” inferior ASIS and 2” medial ASIS
What is the mAs of a RAO projection BE? 6 mAs
Where is the CR of RAO axial BE? At ASIS and 2” left of Lumbar spinous process
Name 4 contraindications to laxative use prior to a BE? Gross bleeding, severe diarrhea, obstruction, inflammatory conditions
What are types of classes of laxatives? Cathartics, Purgatives, Irritant, Saline
An example of an Irritant is Castor oil
Saline laxatives include Magnesium Citrate or Magnesium Sulfate
T/F An Open System enema container is a pre-measured amount of barium sulfate in a disposable bag False: Closed system
The normal range of weight-to-volume in a standard mixture of contrast is what? 15-25%
Double contrast BE has a weight-to-volume concentration of what? 75-95%
What is one way the large and small intestine are different? Large intestine has larger internal diameter
T/F The small intestine contains many haustras. False, Large intestine contains many haustras
Where is the large intestine located in the abdomen? Around the periphery of abdominal wall
Where does the small intestine reside in the abdomen? Located more central in the abdomen
Where does most of the digestion and absorption occur? Small intestine
Where are most salts and 95% of water reabsorbed? Small intestine
Name the primary function of the large intestine Elimination of feces
What kind of function is digestion? Chemical and Mechanical
What is taken up during absorption? Nutrients, water, salts, and proteins
What is taken up during reabsorption? Water and salts
Name 3 contraindications to contrasted studies of the intestinal tract. Pre-surgery patients, possible perforation, bowel obstruction
What time intervals are used for radiographs for small bowels that lasts only 2 hours? 15-30 minutes
What time intervals are used for radiographs for small bowels that last longer than 2 hours? One hour intervals
What dilates the loops of small bowel while enhancing the mucosa visibility? Double contrasted study
What does NPO mean? Nothing by mouth
What is the patient prep for a small bowel exam? NPO 8 hours beforehand
What is studied fluoroscopically at the end of the small bowel study? Terminal ileum and ileocecal valve
To better see the loops of the bowel and create higher degree of visibility, what position should patient be in during small bowel exam? Prone
What is the study that uses contrast to demonstrate the large intestine? Barium Enema(BE)
Why isn’t a BE done when there is a chance of appendicitis? Danger of possible perforation
Colitis is indicated how? Thickening of mucosal wall and loss of haustral markings
Ulcerative colitis is indicated how? “cobblestone” and possible “stovepipe” appearance
Diverticula is indicated how? Barium filled circular defects projection outward from the colon wall, “saw tooth” appearance of the mucosa
How does Intussusception appear? Mushroom shaped dilation at distal aspect of intussusception, very little barium or gas passing beyond it
How are neoplasms indicated? Filling defects, narrowing of lumen, “apple-core” or “napkin-ring” lesions
What are the 2 purposes for a BE study? Study the form and function
What modalities are used instead of a BE if appendicitis is present? Ultrasound/CT
Duodenum is located in what quadrants? LUQ and RUQ
Ileum is located in which quadrants? LLQ, RUQ, RLQ
Jejunum is located in what quadrant? LUQ, LLQ
Ileocecal valve is located in what quadrant? RLQ
What makes up three fifths of the small intestine? Ileum
How long is the Duodenum? 10”
What part of the intestine has a feather appearance Jejunum
What else is the right colic flexure also known as? Hepatic Flexure
What else is the left colic flexure also known as? Splenic Flexure
Which part of the large intestine is located between the rectum and descending colon? Sigmoid Colon
Which part of the small intestine has the largest diameter? Duodenum
Created by: magrissom