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Stack #1512670


Carl Jung Highlighted universal themes in the unconscious as a source of creativity and insight. Found opportunities for personal growth by finding meaning in moments of coincidence
Alfred Adler Focused on the fight against feelings of inferiority as a theme at the core of personality, although he may have been projecting from his own experience
Karen Horney Criticized the Freudian portrayal of women as weak and subordinate to men. She highlighted the need to feel secure in relationships.
Flaws in Freud’s scientific method hindsight bias, biased observation,unrepresentative sampling,unfalsifiable
person-centered therapy - developed by Carl Rogers The therapist listens to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way, addressing problems in a productive way and building his or her self-esteem.
The three conditions that facilitate growth (just as water, nutrients, and light facilitate the growth of a tree): honesty,acceptance,empathy
Gordon Allport decided that Freud overvalued unconscious motives and undervalued our real, observable personality styles/traits.
trait An enduring quality that makes a person tend to act a certain way.
Myers and Briggs wanted Myers and Briggs wanted to to study individual behaviors and statements to find how people differed in personality: having different traits
Trait theory of personality: That we are made up of a collection of traits, behavioral predispositions that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person
what is The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a questionnaire categorizing people by traits
Extraverts tend (mind)to have low levels of brain activity, making it hard to suppress impulses, and leading them to seek stimulation
The trait of shyness appears (body)to be related to high autonomic system reactivity, an easily triggered alarm system.
Selective breeding of animals seems to (Genes)create lifelong differences in traits such as aggression, sociability, or calmness, suggesting genetic roots for these traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): Designed to identify people with personality difficulties T/F questionnaire; items were selected because they correlated with various traits, emotions, attitudes
The Eysencks felt that people varied along two dimensions. Current cross-cultural research and theory supports the expansion from two dimensions to five factors: what are those 5 factors conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openess,extraversion. (C.A.N.O.E.)
stability One’s distinctive mix of traits doesn’t change much over the lifespan.
Predictive value Levels of success in work and relationships relates to traits such as openness and conscientiousness.
Heritability For most traits, genes account for 50% of the variation among individuals
over the years of our developments, do our traits change? The evidence shows that it takes time for personality to stabilize. Traits do change, but less and less so over time. We change less, become more consistent .
Albert Bandura believes that Personality is: The result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context , involving how we think about ourselves and our situations.
Self-consciousness: The spotlight effect assuming that people are have attention focused on you when they actually may not be noticing you
Self esteem: self-serving bias We all generally tend to think we are above average.
self focus:narcissism self-absorption, self-gratification, inflated but fragile self-worth)
Individualist cultures value independence. They promote personal ideals, strengths, and goals, pursued in competition with others, leading to individual achievement and finding a unique identity
Collectivist cultures value inter dependence. They promote group and societal goals and duties, and blending in with group identity, with achievement attributed to mutual support.
collectivist cultures those which emphasize group unity, allegiance, and purpose over the wishes of the individual
Sigmund Freud He became aware that many powerful mental processes operate in the unconscious without our awareness. This insight grew into a theory of the structure of human personality and its development: psychoanalysis
what trait does not seem to change much during your lifespan personality
Albert Bandura first conducted research combining social context and how we think about ourselves and situations
reciprocal determinism how personality, thoughts and social environment and reinforce/cause each other
biopsychosocial approaches to personality biological psychological and social-cultural influences all may take part in personality
social cultural influences childhood experiance, ifluence of the situation, and cultural expectaions, social experience
narcissism a key point in this disorder is NO EMPATHY, also no remorse. they only care about themselves
WATCH: "DOGS decoded" on netflix
social psychology studies emotions cognitions motivations reinforcers, and more
attribution a conclustion about the cause of an observed behavior
attribution theory ex[lain others behavior with 2 types of attributions
situational attribution factors outside the person doing the action such as peer pressure
dispositional attribution the persons stable enduring traits, personality, ability, emotions.
the foot in the door phenomenon leading off with a small request with a larger goal in mind
the effects of playing a role changing and bending your personality to fit the role you are in charge of playing at that time
zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role-appropriate attitudes
cognitive dissonance when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension.
mimicry wear same clothing and do some of the same things as your social group
chameleon effect unintentionally mirroring the body position and mood of others around us leading to contagious yawning, contagious arm fold..etc
asch conformity about one third of people will agree with the group
milgram wanted to study the influence of direct comands on behavior.
obedience response to commands
milgrams experiment shock experiment
milgram found by conducting his experiment... majority of people were found to continue following orders when put under pressure from the authority
Created by: hunny518