Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Psych A

The process of storing and retrieving information that has previously been experienced/learned. memory
3 types of memory sensory, short term, long term
every bit of information your senses experience most of it is lost attention determines whether it moves on to the next level sensory memory
temporary storage place for information only last about 30 seconds storage is small- only 7±2 items at a time Short-term memory
permanent memory rehearsal and relevancy are key clustering, conceptual hierarchies, schemas, and semantic networks are used long term memory
the process of forming a memory code that will allow the individual to retrieve the information correctly encoding
3 Types of encoding? Semantic- What does it mean? Phonetic- What does it sound like? Structural- What does it look like?
grouping individual bits of information together chunking
In a list of items, people are more likely to remember those items at the front or end of the list primary-recency effect
2 key things to putting things in STM? rehearsal and relevancy
what theory says the working memory has 4 parts? Baddeley & Working Memory Theory
4 types of working memory & what are they Phonological Loop- allows for repetition of data Visuospatial Sketchpad- gives a place to build or hold images Central Executive- “Mission Control” Temporary Buffer- allows integration between areas and long term memory
4 types of information retrieval recall, recognition, reintegration, and relearning
what is recall? to reconstruct information. Happens through our ability to make sense of the world
what is recognition? the ability to identify known information from unknown
what is reintegration? memory of one bit of information triggered by the introduction of a certain stimuli
what is relearning? coming back to something and not forgetting how to use it or what it is ex: riding a bike- after a whole winter of not riding, you can come back to it and still ride it
2 ways to improve memory? mnemonic devices- Aids that help memory through unique associations elaborative rehearsal- The more connections you can make to a piece of information, the more likely it will be remembered
systems of memory? declarative vs. procedural (fact based vs. skills and emotions) episodic vs. semantic (personal memory vs. general knowledge) retrospective vs. prospective (past vs. future)
loss of information over a period of time due to disuse and lack of relevancy decay
the blocking of information interference
later memory blocks earlier retroactive
earlier memory blocks later proactive
loss of memory due to physical trauma to the brain amnesia
forget past memories retrograde
unable to create new memories anterograde
term for the diseases that seriously affect both cognitive and social functioning dementia
The study of behavior and the mental/physical processes that make it happen psychology
what are the goals of psychology? Observe and describe behavior Explain behaviors through hypotheses Predict future behavior based on results Use knowledge to solve issues
People’s behavior would change when they knew they were being watched; occurs in the observation part of the scientific method Hawthorne Effect
What did the Ancient Greeks contribute to Psychology? 1. humans are rational beings 2. used observation to describe behaviors
Who is the father of modern Psychology? Wilhelm Wundt
What is breaking down what was being studied to its most basic parts? Who created this theory? structuralism, Wundt
1. first psychology lab in the US and first psychology journal 2. founded the APA G. Stanley Hall
believed behavior was dominated by unconscious urges driving outward behavior Freud (psychoanalytic)
What are 3 things Freud believed and/or created? 1. people are unpleasant 2. used dream interpretation 3. free association
German school of thought that focused on how individual sensations form complete patterns Gestalt
Which is more important: investigating the basic elements of psychology ________, or its purpose ______ structuralism, functionalism
Who was a strong believer in structuralism? Functionalism? Titchener, James
School of thought that psychology should only concern itself on what can be objectively observed behaviorism
What 2 people were associated with behavioralism? Watson and Skinner
emphasis on the human’s uniqueness and capabilities for positive growth humanism
Give the qualities of a psychologist. 1. have a doctorate (PhD or PsyD) 2. cannot prescribe meds 3. solve issues through counseling 4. some states allow psychologists to prescribe meds
Give the qualities of a psychiatrist. 1. have a medical doctorate (MD) 2. can prescribe meds 3. solve issues through medical means 4. they see the most severe patients
Steps of the Experimental Method 1. Gather data through non-experimental methods 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Determine the independent and dependent variables 4. Find subjects for experiment and split into groups 5. Run experiment, gather results 6. show hypothesis, make a theory
What is the difference between the experimental and null hypothesis? experimental hypothesis- cause and effect relationship exists null hypothesis- no cause and effect relationship exists
What is the difference between the independent and dependent variables? independent variable- factor that has an impact; this variable is changed dependent variable- factor(s) impacted by the independent variable; this should stay consistent for a good experiment
What are the differences between the experimental, control, and placebo groups? experimental group- receives the variable control group- does not receive variable placebo group- group thinks they are receiving variable but aren’t
What are some issues in experimentation? fraud ethics subject pool doesn’t reflect society at large placebo effect double-blind experiments
What is an intense study of one person or individual with a strange condition? Example? case-study, genie
What is following a larger group of people for many years? Example? longitudinal, Hiroshima
What is a study where researchers ask many people questions about certain subjects? Example? surveys, opinion polls
What is a study where one looks to see if there is a connection between 2 or more things? Example? Correlational studies, the more income you make the more likely you are to vote
What is a positive correlation? Negative? positive correlation- increase in y creates an increase in x (x=ky) negative correlation- increase in y creates a decrease in x (xy=k)
What is the mean? average
What is the median? middle number
What is the mode? most commonly occurring number
a person’s awareness of the world around him/her consciousness
If consciousness varies to the point that is considerably varies from the norm, it is termed a(n).... altered state of conscience
the cycle of wake and sleep circadian rhythm
the chemical that plays a key role in regulation of sleep/wake cycles melatonin
what stage does most dreaming occur in? stage 1
interruption of breathing during sleep, snoring due to blocked windpipe, causing the person to wake up repeatedly sleep apnea
inability to sleep linked to anxiety and depression insomnia
the immediate falling to sleep (often REM) from wake ` narcolepsy
sleepwalking that occurs during NREM sleep somnambulsim
occurs during Stage 4 sleep, not during dream state. Features fear-producing episodes combined with movement of the person affected. night terrors
person is able to move during REM and therefore act out dreams REM sleep disorder
which kinds of dreams have negative emotions? REM
what stage of sleep has positive emotions? NREM
which stage of sleep is longer and dream states increase throughout the night REM
dreams indicate pathway into a person’s true self psychoanalytic (Freud)
Dreams composed of bizarre combinations of a person’s working memory activation-synthesis
During sleep, information is stored into long-term memory and dreams are byproduct of storage continual activation
any substance that changes a person’s behavior. drug
what type of drug accelerates the brain and body; give examples stimulant; caffeine, nicotine
what type of drug slows down the brain and body. depressant
What type of depressant is a sedative? pain killer? Opiates-pain killers Sedatives- make you drowsy
what types of drugs generate changes in perception detached from physical reality; examples? hallucinogens; LSD
Some substances or behaviors trigger such a rush of dopamine that it overwhelms receptors within the brain Result--dopamine acts as a motivating agent, making the need to get the next “fix” (most important thing for an addict Volkow’s Salience Theory of Addiction
the ability to receive stimuli from the outside world sensation
your interpretation of the stimuli perception
what are the 5 major senses 1. Vision (sight) 2. Auditory (hearing) 3. Olfactory (smell) 4. Gustatory (taste) 5. Tactile (touch)
The ability to recognize stimuli depends on whether the amount of stimuli reaches the level of _______ threshold
the weakest amount of stimuli necessary for human sensory systems to recognize absolute threshold
the ability to detect stimuli depends not only on the amount of stimulus, but the outside factors such as “noise” and attention signal detection theory
If the level of stimulus stays constant, a person’s sensory system will be able to block out (ignore) it adaption
For a rare few, their sensory systems work in a unique way (Ex: they can feel colors) synesthesia
mistakes in perception based on real stimuli illusion
mistakes in perception based on imaginary stimuli hallucination
Created by: swimmingninja42
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards