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Activation-synthesis hypothesis An attempt to explain how dream content is affected by motor commands in the brain that occur during sleep but are not carried out.
Alpha waves Large, slow brainwaves associated with relaxation and falling asleep.
Altered state of consciousness (ASC) A condition of awareness distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking consciousness.
Anhedonia An inability to feel pleasure.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A behavioral problem characterized by short attention span, restless movement, and impaired learning capacity.
Basic suggestion effect The tendency of hypnotized persons to carry out suggested actions as if they were involuntary.
Beta waves Small, fast brainwaves associated with being awake and alert.
Binge drinking Consuming five or more drinks in a short time (four for women).
Biological rhythm Any repeating cycle of biological activity, such as sleep and waking cycles or changes in body temperature.
Caffeinism Excessive consumption of caffeine, leading to dependence and a variety of physical and psychological complaints.
Cataplexy A sudden temporary paralysis of the muscles.
Concentrative meditation Mental exercise based on attending to a single object or thought.
Condensation Combining several people, objects, or events into a single dream image.
Consciousness Mental awareness of sensations and perceptions of external events as well as self-awareness of internal events including thoughts, memories, and feelings about experiences and the self.
Deep sleep Stage 4 sleep; the deepest form of normal sleep.
Delta waves Large, slow brainwaves that occur in deeper sleep (stages 3 and 4).
Depressant A substance that decreases activity in the body and nervous system.
Detoxification In the treatment of alcoholism, the withdrawal of the patient from alcohol.
Displacement Directing emotions or actions toward safe or unimportant dream images.
Dream processes Mental filters that hide the true meanings of dreams.
Dream symbols Images in dreams that serve as visible signs of hidden ideas, desires, impulses, emotions, relationships, and so forth.
Drug interaction A combined effect of two drugs that exceeds the addition of one drug’s effects to the other.
Drug tolerance A reduction in the body’s response to a drug.
Electroencephalograph (EEG) A device designed to detect, amplify, and record electrical activity in the brain.
Hallucinogen A substance that alters or distorts sensory impressions.
Hidden observer A detached part of the hypnotized person’s awareness that silently observes events.
Hypnosis An altered state of consciousness characterized by narrowed attention and increased suggestibility.
Hypnotic susceptibility One’s capacity for becoming hypnotized.
Insomnia Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep.
Light sleep Stage 1 sleep, marked by small, irregular brainwaves and some alpha waves.
Long sleeper A person averaging 9 hours of sleep or more per night.
Lucid dream A dream in which the dreamer feels awake and capable of normal thought and action.
Meditation A mental exercise for producing relaxation or heightened awareness.
Microsleep A brief shift in brainwave patterns to those of sleep.
Mindfulness A state of open, nonjudgmental awareness of current experience.
Mindfulness meditation Mental exercise based on widening attention to become aware of everything experienced at any given moment.
Narcolepsy A sudden, irresistible sleep attack.
Neurocognitive dream theory Proposal that dreams reflect everyday waking thoughts and emotions.
Night terror A state of panic during NREM sleep.
Nightmare A bad dream that occurs during REM sleep.
Non-REM (NREM) sleep Non–rapid eye movement sleep characteristic of stages 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Physical dependence Physical addiction, as indicated by the presence of drug tolerance and withdrawal symptoms.
Psychoactive drug A substance capable of altering attention, memory, judgment, time sense, self-control, mood, or perception.
Psychodynamic theory Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces.
Psychological dependence Drug dependence that is based primarily on emotional or psychological needs.
Rapid eye movements (REMs) Swift eye movements during sleep.
Relaxation response The pattern of internal bodily changes that occurs at times of relaxation.
REM rebound The occurrence of extra rapid eye movement sleep following REM sleep deprivation.
REM sleep Sleep marked by rapid eye movements and a return to stage 1 EEG patterns.
Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) A form of sensory deprivation that results in a variety of psychological benefits.
Secondary elaboration Making a dream more logical and complete while remembering it.
Sensory deprivation (SD) Any major reduction in the amount or variety of sensory stimulation.
Short sleeper A person averaging 5 hours of sleep or less per night.
Sleep apnea Repeated interruption of breathing during sleep.
Sleep deprivation Being prevented from getting desired or needed amounts of sleep.
Sleep spindles Distinctive bursts of brainwave activity that indicate a person is asleep.
Sleep stages Levels of sleep identified by brainwave patterns and behavioral changes.
Sleep-deprivation psychosis A major disruption of mental and emotional functioning brought about by sleep loss.
Somnambulism Sleepwalking; occurs during NREM sleep.
Stage hypnosis Use of hypnosis to entertain; often, merely a simulation of hypnosis for that purpose.
Stimulant A substance that increases activity in the body and nervous system.
Stimulus control Linking a particular response with specific stimuli.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) The sudden, unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant.
Symbolization The nonliteral expression of dream content.
Tranquilizer A drug that lowers anxiety and reduces tension.
Waking consciousness A state of clear, organized alertness.
Withdrawal symptoms Physical illness and discomfort following the withdrawal of a drug.
Created by: jeni25