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Psych chapters 2-3

Consciousness Is the awareness of objects and events in the external world and of our own existence and mental experiences at any given moment.
4 Characteristics of Consciousness 1. Personal - It is your subjective understanding of both your unique internal world + external environment. 2. Selective - You can choose to attend to certain things & not others. 3. Continuous - Never empty 4. Changing - Constant new information
2 Broad Categories of Consciousness 1. Normal Waking Consciousness (NWC) 2. Altered States of Consciousness (ASC)
Normal Waking Consciousness Refers to the states of consciousness associated with being awake and aware of our thoughts, memories feeling and sensations from the external world.
Attention Is a concentration of mental activity that involves focusing on a specific stimulus while ignoring other stimuli. 2 types of attention - Selective & Divided
Selective Attention Involves choosing + attending to a specific stimulus to the exclusion of others - our attention is only a limited range of all that we are capable of experiencing. - We choose events in which are personal to us.
Divided Attention Refers to the ability to distribute our attention and undertake two or more activities simultaneously. Eg. Talking on the phone while driving
Factors leading to be able to "Divide Attention" - How much conscious effort is required - The complexity of the tasks - How accomplished or experienced we are at the tasks.
Content limitations The Content held in our normal waking conciousness is more restricted our limited than during an ASC. We are able to exercise control over what we allow into NWC for instance through selective attention. - In ASCs we don't have the same form of control.
Controlled Process Involves conscious, alert awareness and mental effort in which the individual actively focuses their attention on achieving a particular goal. - Complete devotion to one task Eg. maths equations. - Usually serial
Automatic Process Requires minimal attention. An individual handles two or more tasks at once. - Low levels of mental processing. - Used when a task is simpler of familiar and tends to be rapid. Eg. The Stroop Effect (1935)
The Stroop Effect (1963) Was to investigate the differences in controlled & automatic processing. - Is the observation that it takes longer to name the colour of the ink the word is printed on if the word is the name of the different colour than it does to identify a block colo
Findings of Stroop Effect (1963) Found that when presented with conflicting stimuli, we can prevent automatic processing from dominating. Even when there is no incongruence with the task such as when the text was of objects, automatic processing still resides.
Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) Used to describe any state of consciousness that is distinctly different from normal waking consciousness.
Naturally occurring ASCS - Sleep - Daydreaming - Dreaming
Purposefully induced ASCs - Meditation - Hypnosis - Alcohol - Medication - Illegal drugs
Common Characteristics of ASCS - Perpetual + cognitive distortions - A disturbed sense of time - Changes in emotional awareness - Changes in self - control
Distortions of Perception and Cognition in ASCS - An ASC either makes them more receptive to external stimuli or dulls them so some sensations aren't experienced at all. - Cognitive functioning may also become impaired. Eg. Recalling memories
Time Orientation in ASCs - In an ASC, time may become distorted. For some individuals ASCs may speed up or slow down time.
Changes in emotional awareness during ASCs -ASCs appear to sometimes put an individual in emotional turmoil, resulting in uncharacteristic responses. Eg. In an alcohol induced state, individuals may become more emotional and express themselves more clearly.
Changes in Self - Control during ASCs. Eg. In an alcohol induced state, individuals may have trouble with coordination or controlling their movements. However Hypnosis requires people to have better self control.
Daydreaming Is an ASC in which we shift our attention from external stimuli to internal thoughts, feelings and imagined scenarios. - Some daydreams are pleasurable (unrealistic) fantasies while others are more practical. - More likely to occur when stationary.
Content of daydreaming Disjointed, unrelated & emotional thoughts.
Freud's Daydreaming Theory - Believed that the purpose of daydreams is to allow us to do in our fantasies what we are unable to do in our reality. - This way we reduce the frustration and tension we would otherwise have experienced as a result of unfulfilled wishes.
Singer's Daydreaming Theory (1976) - Proposes that daydreaming enables us to mentally try out a range of courses of action that could be applied to particular situations. - Contradicts Freud's view by implementing that some daydreams are also full of sadness & regret.
Schacter's Daydreaming Theory (1975) - Has suggested that daydreaming may also assist us to solve problems.
Day dreaming Brain waves On an EEG - Brain waves are usually Alpha brain waves, often associated with a relaxed state, such as NREM stage 1 when the sleeper is moving from awaking conciousness to sleep.
Alcohol Induced State (An ASC) - Considered a psychoactive drug because these drugs are chemicals that change conscious awareness, perception or moods. - Considered a depressant - depresses the activity of brain centres responsible for judgement + self - control.
Effects of Alcohol Consumption - A shortened attention span - Impaired perception - Slower reactions - Impaired thinking - Impaired memory - reduced self awareness/ emotionally - Less self control - Impaired perception of time - deterioration in performance of complex tasks
Methods used to Study Normal Waking Consciousness - Electroencephalograph (EEG) - Heart Rate - Body Temperature - Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
Electroencephalograph (EEG) A device that detects, amplifies and records brain wave patterns. - These patterns are measures of the electrical activity created by billions of neurons in the brain. - The EEG amplifies and translates the weak electrical activity into brain waves.
Brain waves formed by EEGS. (In order of size) - Beta - Alpha - Theta - Delta
Brain Waves Frequency Is the number of waves per second. Higher frequency - faster, more per second. Lower frequency - slower, fewer per second.
Brain Waves Amplitude A measure of intensity. - High amplitude - bigger peaks + troughs - Low amplitude - small peaks + troughs
Beta Have a high frequency (Fast) and low (small) amplitude. Usually associated with NWCs,focused attention
Alpha Have a high frequency (but slower than beta waves) and low amplitude. - Associated with relaxed wakeful state. (When we begin to close our eyes)
Theta Have a medium frequency and a mixture of low and high amplitude waves. Associated with the earliest stages of sleep.
Delta Have the lowest frequency and the highest amplitude. Typically associated with the deepest stages of sleep.
Body temperature - Core (internal) body temperature varies in a regular, relatively predictable way over a 24 - hour period. - Is quite constant, does not vary nearly as much as heart rate despite changes in awareness throughout the day.
Causes of Body temperature - Can change with some ASCs. - Physical activity - Environment conditions - Can be induced by a health problem
Heart Rate Is measured by an Electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) a device that detects, amplifies and records the electro activity generated by the heart. - Refers to how fast the heart beats, the ECG can measure heart rhythm, whether heart beat is regular/ irregular.
Causes of change in Heart Rate: - A heart rate can be slower when a person is drowsy or very relaxed. Also in a deep sleep. - Heart rate can be faster during REM sleep. - When a person is in an ASC. - Physical activity
Galvanic Skin Response Is a physiological response that indicates the change in the resistance of the skin's surface to the passage of an electrical current. The GSR measure the electrical conductivity of skin. - In order to record a GSR, electrodes are attached to the hand.
Causes in changes in GSR: - Emotional experiences - Levels of alertness - The experience in high emotional arousing gives rise to increased sweating as shown in a GSR. - Can be an indicator of an alteration in an individual's state of consciousness.
Definition of Sleep Can be described as a regular occurring ASC that occurs naturally and is typically characterised by loss of consciousness.
Methods used to study Sleep - Electroencephalograph - Electromyograph - Electro - ocular graph - Heart rate - Core body temperature - Self reports
Sleep Labs - Definition * Is where individuals go with sleeping disorders to get diagnosed + treated. Can also be studied for research purposes.
Sleep labs - Appearance - A sleep lab has one or more small 'bedrooms', furnished + decorated to be homelike and to be as comfortable as possible. - Person is connected to an adjoining control room, where researchers monitor their sleep patterns.
Polysomnography Is an intensive study of a sleeping person involving simultaneous monitoring + recording of physiological responses of the sleeper during the course of the night.
Electromyograph Is used to detect, amplify and record the electrical activity of muscles. -EMG recordings generally show the strength of electrical activity occurring in the muscles, indicates change in muscle activity (movement) + muscle tone. (tension)
Electro - ocular graph - Measures eye movement or eye positions by detecting, amplifying + recording electrical activity in eye muscles that control eye movement. - Most commonly used to measure changes in eye movement during different stages of sleep or while dreaming.
Heart rate and Core body temperature during sleep - Both gradually drop as a person progressively drifts from light sleep into deep sleep, then gradually increases as person drifts from deep into light sleep.
Video Monitoring - Is used to record externally observable physiological responses throughout the sleep cycle. Such as: - Changes in posture - Awakening from a nightmare or night terror. - Sleep walking
NREM Non - rapid eye movement - 4 distinct stages (Sleeper progresses from light - dark - light) - 80% of our time spent in NREM sleep. - Brain is active, not as active as during REM sleep. - May be the time when the body recovers.
Hypnogogic State - Characterised by slow, rolling eye movements. - May experience sudden images + jerky movements. - Body is drifting towards the first stage of NREM sleep.
NREM Stage 1 - Occurs as we drift in and out of sleep state. - A loss of identity and external surroundings (though not completely) - Alpha + Theta waves. - Decrease in heart rate, respiration, body temperature etc. - May experience the "Hypnic jerk"
Hypnic Jerk - Occurs in stage 1 of NREM sleep - A jerking sensation
NREM Stage 2 A light stage of Sleep - A person can still easily be aroused at this stage. - Mainly theta waves, lower in frequency and higher in amplitude than those in stage 1. - Sleep spindles occur - K complexes occur
Physiological Characteristics of NREM sleep Stage 2 - Heart rate, blood pressure + body temperature continue to drop. - Breathing becomes more regular.
Sleep Spindles - Are brief bursts of high frequency brain activity. Last for approximately 1 second. - dominant characteristic of stage 2 NREM sleep.
K Complexes - Bursts of low frequency and slightly higher amplitude waves. - Is the brain responding to external stimuli - Common characteristic of stage 2 NREM sleep.
NREM Stage 3 - Is the start of the deepest period of sleep. - Last for about 10 minutes - EEG Activity - There is a reduction in the brain's electrical activity and delta waves begin to appear. Lower in frequency + higher in amplitude. - Slow Wave Sleep
Physiological Characteristics of NREM sleep stage 3: - Heart rate, blood pressure + body temperature continue to drop. - Breathing becomes slow + steady. - Individual is extremely relaxed + becomes less responsive to the outside world. - If awoken from this stage people are often groggy + disorientated
NREM Stage 4 - Is the deepest stage of sleep. - Muscles are completely relaxed + we barely move. - Delta waves dominate the EEG pattern. - Very difficult to awake from stage 4. - May spend up to 20 mins in stage 4. - This stage that night terrors usually occur.
How long does an NREM cycle take?? - 45 -60 minutes. - We look as if we will wake up, sign of moving into REM sleep.
REM Rapid - eye - movement - During which the eyeballs rapidly move beneath the closed eyelids. - Brain waves are beta - irregular, low amplitude, high frequency.
REM sleep AKA and why? Paradoxical sleep - Because the internal body is more active whereas the outer body is more passive. - Sleeper is paralysed.
Physiological Changes of REM sleep - Body's internal functioning is more active. - Heart rate is faster. more irregular - Breathing is quicker, more irregular - Body shows few outward movements
Does sleep increase or decrease throughout a person's lifespan? Decreases. For example: The time spent in REM sleep decreases markedly from infancy to adulthood and remains stable throughout adulthood and old age.
Infant sleep cycles: How long do they sleep? 16 hours with 50% REM sleep. By the end of infancy, sleep will drop to 25 - 30 % REM sleep and 12 - 13 hours.
Start of adolescence (12 - 13 years old) sleeping cycles: About 9 hours sleep, 20 % REM sleep.
Adult sleep cycles: 6- 7 hours of sleep. One third in REM sleep.
Between ages 13 - 19 (adolescence) sleep cycles: 10 hours - less than 8 hours. Studies show that adolescences need approximately 9 hours in order to function well.
Circadian Rhythm Our biological clock - The body cycles as related to the 24 hour rotation of earth;; regular bodily rhythms - Linked to external cues in the environment.
Sleep - Wake cycle shift Affects an adolescent's ability to fall asleep at certain times. Means that the biological clock will move forward 1- 2 hours, making the adolescent sleepy 2 hours late.
Sleep debt If we lose sleep, that sleep is owed and needs to be repaid.
How many Australians have various sleeping problems? Up to 50%. Should have 8 - 9 hours of sleep or short term memory or other mental processes may be disadvantaged.
Sleep deprivation - Going with sleep - Can fall into broad categories: Partial sleep deprivation or total sleep deprivation
Partial Sleep deprivation Having less than what is normally required.
Total Sleep deprivation Having no sleep at all. - Effects are only temporary. Resolved when sleep debt is repaid. - Usually have much more impact on lifestyle, accidents are more likely to occur. Person's reaction time is up to 45% slower.
Partial Sleep deprivation effects: - Tiredness - Lack of energy - Lapses is attention - Low motivation - inability to concentrate for a long period of time. - Impaired motor skills. - Slower reaction time. -difficulty making decisions or solving problems. - Thinking irrationally.
Total sleep deprivation psychological effects: - anxiety disorders - depression - hypertension - sleep disorders - hallucinations - delusions - Paranoia
Total sleep deprivation physiological effects: - Hand tremors - dropping eye lids - difficulty focusing the eyes - Lack of energy and strength - Slurred speech - Insensitivity to pain - Heart & respiratory system slower - Impaired production of hormones in the endocrine system
Microsleep Is a very short period of drowsiness or sleeping that occurs while the person is apparently awake. - During a micro sleep, the EEG pattern resembles that of the early stages of NREM sleep. - Participants may have no recollection experiencing one.
2 Purposes for sleep: - Restorative Theories - Survival Theories
Physiological evidence for restorative theories: - Small muscles are relaxed - Heart + breathing rates slow down - Neural activity in certain parts of the brain are slightly reduced.
Restorative Theories - Sleep replenishes & restores energy - Provides time to help us recover from depleting activities during waking time that uses the body's physical & mental resources. - Allows time to repair damaged cells & detoxifies muscles. (waste products)
How is the restorative view supported? - People who are sick sleep for a longer period of time to recover. - People, who feel more tired before sleep, feel more energetic and refreshed upon waking.
Research evidence of Restorative theories: - Studies on rats (2000) showed a breakdown of bodily tissues & death within three weeks of sleep deprivation. - Also found that a growth hormone is secreted during sleep to promote bodily repairs.
REM Rebound: refers to the tendency of a sleeper to spend extra time in REM sleep to make up for previously lost REM sleep.
NREM & REM restorative purposes include: NREM - Restores and repairs the body REM - Restores the brain, high mental functioning in learning & memory. - Explains the fact that infants have more REM sleep - developing brains - May help preserve connections between neuronal pathways.
Survival Theory (Evolutionary Theory or Preservation and Protection Theory) - Proposes that sleep evolved to enhance survival by protecting an organism through making it inactive when it is most dangerous. - Once an organism has fulfilled all of its survival options, it must spend the rest of its time conserving energy etc.
Criticisms of The Survival Theory - People and animals are subject to greater danger when asleep. - A simplistic view of sleep. - Fails to explain why we suffer physiologically or psychologically when we do not get enough sleep OR why sleep involves a lack of awareness.
Created by: ama14
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