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Med/Sx Lab & ADR

little bit of notes for lab test/more ADR

purpose of lab tests screening for hidden dx, ID cause of symptoms, monitor progress of dx
limitations not perfect, can get false + or -
factors that can alter tests age, sex, wt, physiologic status (pregnancy, drugs, food)
ADR adverse drug reactions-unwanted, potentially harmful effects produced by medications
side effects predictable effects with therapeutic doses
OD overdose-use of a drug in excess of a therapeutic dose with toxic effects
non-dose related hypersensitivity/allergic reaction are the most common-happens even when med used correctly
drug allergy prevention stop use when reaction noted & avoid re-exposure. always documented on front of pt record
ADR risk factors age,(very old, very young), gender (women), ethnicity, alcohol use, a new drug, total # of drugs being taken, use of herbals, duration of rx with medication, non-compliance w/recommended dose, frequency, duration, small stature, underlying condition
NSAIDS nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-most OTC-aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen/anti-inflammatory, pain relief
NSAIDS adverse effects on GI tract pain, bleeding, contraindicated for pts w/ a hx of gastritis w/bleeding & peptic ulcer dx
adverse effects of platelet inhibitor can cause spontaneous hemorrhage, contraindicated w/ the use of anticoagulant drugs: heparin, Coumadin (aka Wafarin)
therapeutic effects of platelet inhibitor daily small doses of ASA may be prescribed to prevent stroke or heart attack
Prothrombin Time blood's ability to clot- test used to dx bleeding disorder & monitor anticoagulation therapy- too much ASA, PT may be longer than normal(bleeding longer, taking longer for blood to clot)
2nd gen NSAIDS COX-2 Inhibitors: Vioxx, Celebrex-recently removed from market or greatly reduced because of an increase chance for a # of serious adverse reactions, heart attack
corticosteroids definition produced naturally in the body by the adrenal glands (glucocorticosteroids (cortisol))or synthetically (cortisone, hydrocortisone, beclomethasone)
corticosteroids effects/uses 1)anti-inflammatory 2)immunosuppression 3)hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency (addison's dx)
ways to administer corticosteroids systemically -orally, by IV, by injection/ inhalers for asthma/locally-lotion, ointment, injection to joint (w/lidocaine, takes 2-3 days to see benefits), phonopheresis, iontophoresis
corticosteroid therapy can be... short term (ex Bell's palsy), or long term (ex RA)
side effects of long term corticosteroid use to skin & connective tissue hiruitism (unwanted hair growth), thinning of subcutaneous tissue, delayed wound healing, skin bruises easily, stretch marks, acne
side effects of long term corticosteroid use to musculoskeletal system myopathy, osteoporosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, premature closure of growth plates in kids, tendons become fragile & rupture more easily
side effects of long term corticosteroid use to cardiovascular system congestive heart failure, systemic edema, HTN, atherosclerosis
psychological side effects of long term corticosteroid use mood swings, depression, euphoria, psychosis, insomnia
side effects of long term corticosteroid use to appearance weight gain, moon face, reduced self esteem, poor body image
side effects of long term corticosteroid use to ednocrine system increased risk for DM
side effects of long term corticosteroid use to immune system suppression: increased risk for infections, symptoms muted/can delay rx
side effects of long term corticosteroid use to GI increased risk for PUD
rx precautions/contraindications for PT avoid hi loads w/resistance training & stretching: fx's (osteoporosis), tendon rupture, HTN-cautious w/aerobic ex, skin fragile, bruises & burns more easily, no WB-rx avascular necrosis
anabolic steroids synthetic testosterone, illegal in this country -used for performance enhancement/to build mm-hypertrophy
general clinical picture anabolic steroids sudden wt gain, upper body dev > lower body, acne, HTN, bruises easily
anabolic steroids clinical pic exclusive to females deeper voice, breast atrophy, facial hair, period stops, sterility
anabolic steroids clinical pic exclusive to males male pattern baldness, breast enlargement
anabolic steroids extreme/serious side effects ischemic heart dx, MI, sudden death, "rhoid rage"-resulting in violent behavior including murder & suicide
Created by: jessigirrl4



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