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Pathology Unit 2

aligmentary tract

What is esophageal atresia? incomplete development of the esophagus
what is the term for abnormal pathway normally in a hollow organ? fistulous/fistula
Waht does GERD stand for? gastroesophageal reflux disease
What condition causes backward flow or reflux of gastric and sometimes duodenal contents into the esophagus? GERD
What is the primary cause of esophagitis? GERD
What is caused when the LES is relaxed too much? GERD
What foods are avoided due to GERD? chocolate, peppermint, caffenine, alcohol, spicy and acidic foods
T/F: atresia only occurs in the esophagus. false; it can happen anywhere in the alimentary tract
What is an outpouching of one or more layers of the esophageal wall? diverticula
What is the pleural term for more than one diverticulum? diverticula
What is the condition where diverticula become inflammed? diverticulitis
What are the two types of esophageal diverticula? 1) traction 2)pulsion
What is the difference between traction and pulsion diverticula? *traction- is radiographically seen more "triangular" and results from scar tissue that toughens and pulls on esophagus *pulsion- radiographically more "rounded"; results of increased pressure from hollow organ
Which diverticula can result from disease that pulls on the esophagus? traction diverticula
Which diverticulum occurs more frequently in upper and lower thirds of the esophagus? pulsion
What are the two types of pulsion diverticula? *zenker's *epiphrenic
Which pulsion diverticulum is located at the pharnygoesophageal junction and is usually wider than the esophagus? zenker's diverticulum
Which pulsion diverticulum is located just above the diaphragm? epiphrenic
What is the relationship between the size of the diverticulum and the pain the patient experiences? the larger the diverticulum; the more symptomatic they are.
What is narrowing of the esophagus, can result of reflux esophagitis and can look like parastolisis? benign stricture of the esophagus
What is esophageal candidiasis? yeast infection; if sick or taking antibiotics can become infected.
What does esophageal candidiasis look like radiographically? mucosal irregularity, shaggy appearance
What is candidiasis of the oral cavity called? thrush
What is dysphagia? difficulty swallowing
What is odynophagia? painful swallowing
How are benign strictures treated? esophageal dilation with endoscopy: inflating a small balloon or tapered plastic dialators to stretch esophagus; repeated process
What are two different names for Achalasia? "mega esophagus" "cardiac stenosis"
What is achalasia? neuromuscular disorder; cardiac sphincter fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction & esophagus becoming dilated
What two organs does the cardiac spincter separate? esophagus from the stomach
What does achalasia look like radiographically? "birds beak"; esohpagus looks extremely dilated, lacks peristalsis
What is halitosis? bad breath
What condition has "fullness" sensation behind the sternum, progressive dysphasia, and severe halitosis? achalasia
What are varicose veins in submucosal layer of the esophagus? esophageal varices
What does esophageal varices look like radiographically? long serpentine filling defects; barium has to go around the dilated veins
What are the different ways to treat esophageal varices? *medications: beta blockers *esophageal banding (ligation) *endoscopic sclerotherapy *shunt between portal and hepatic vein *liver transplant
What is esophageal banding? elastic bands placed around the enlarged esophageal veins: used with beta blockers
What is the treatment when a chemical is injected into an enlarged vein or into the wall of the esphagus next to the enlarged veins and dissolves them? endoscopic sclerotherapy
What is a hiatal hernia? protrusion of the stomach through incompetent cardiac spincter in the L hemidiaphragm.
What are the different types of hiatal hernias? *sliding *paraesophageal *mixed
Describe a sliding hiatal hernia. part of the stomach herniates above the diaphragm; can reduce itself back below diaphragm in early stages; most common hiatal hernia
What type of hernia is a fixed hiatal hernia? sliding hiatal hernia
What is the common indication of a sliding hiatal hernia? schatzki's ring
What is the schatizki's ring? marks the position of the site where to esophagus and stomach originally joined
T/F: a fixed hiatal hernia can reduce itself. false; its fixed so its unable to slide back down below the diaphragm
Describe a paraesophageal hernia. the fundus herniates through the diaphragm; esophageal junction remains below the diaphragm
Why is the paraesophageal hernia potentially life-threatening? the risk of volvulus and cutting off blood supply
What is the difference between a paraesophageal & sliding hiatal hernia? sliding hiatal hernia: esophageal junction is above the diaphragm while in a paraesophageal hernia the esophageal junction is below the diaphragm.
What is it called when the entire stomach is above the diaphragm? intrathoracic stomach
What is an abnormal connection between any hollow anatomy (organ, vessel, or intestine) with another structure? fistula
What causes a fistula? injury, surgery, infection or inflammation, congenital
What is tertiary peristalsis? muscle of esophagus contracts & relaxes at will; usually a single wave of peristalsis
What does tertiary peristalsis look like radiographically? corkscrew appearance
What is Barrett's esophagus? normal squamous epithelial esophageal tissue is replaced by tissue similar to intestinal lining; have intestinal metaplasia goblet cells
Barrett's esophagus has an increased risk of esophageal _____________. adenocarcinoma
What is the cause of Barrett's esophagus? complication of long term GERD
What is the apple core deformity symbolize? esophageal cancer
What are some names for esophageal cancer? *napkin-ring defect *annular lesion
What is the cause of esophageal cancer? idiopathic
What is gastritis? inflammation of the lining or mucosa of the stomach
What does gastritis look like radiographically? thickening of rugal folds
What is an ulceration of mucous membrane of esophagus, stomach or duodenum? peptic ulcer
What is a peptic ulcer in the gastric mucosa? gastric ulcer
What is a peptic ulcer situated in the duodenum? duodenal ulcer
What is a peptic ulcer situated in the esophagus? esophageal ulcer
Peptic ulcers may lead to what? bleeding or perforation
What is the primary symptom of ulcers? epigastric pain: usually relieved by eating but pain returns when stomach is empty.
What is the bacteria that usually causes ulcers? helicobacter pylori
What happens if barium leaks from a gastric ulcer that perforates? *may leak into venous circulation which could produce a fatal embolus *desiccation (dries up) *intestinal infarction *peritonitis *death
What is it called when there is removal of distal stomach & pyloric antrum then resected to the jejunum? gastrojejunostomy
What is it called when there is complete removal of the stomach; esophagus then commented to jejunum? gastrectomy
What is a mass of indigestible material that becomes trapped in the stomach? bezoar
What are the 3 types of bezoars? *phytobezoar *trichobezoar *pharmacobezoar
What bezoar is normally formed from fruit/vegetable fibers and is the most common type of bezoar? phytobezoar
What bezoar is composed of hair and is from individuals who have a complusive desire to eat hair? trichobezoar
Which bezoar is from medications that don't properly dissolve in the digestive tract; an example is vitamins? pharmacobezoar
What are the options of treating bezoars? *medications to help dissolve mass *surgery
What is the most common cause for diverticulosis? congential
What is malrotation? when intestines are not in normal position
Radiographically, what condition shows up as a "double bubble"? duodenal atresia
What is another name for bowel obstruction? ileus
Where can an ileus occur? small and large bowel
What are the two types of bowel obstructions? *adynamic/paralytic ileus *mechanical/ obstructive ileus
What is the difference between the two types of bowel obstructions? *adynamic/paralytic ileus: neuromuscular paralysis *mechanical/ obstructive ileus: mechanical blockage
Radiographically, what is the difference between the two types of bowel obstruction? 1) adynamic: gas everywhere 2) mechanical: gas pattern up to point of obstruction
If a radiograph has a "step ladder pattern" where is the obstruction? in the small bowel
What is pneumoperitoneum? air in the perioteneum
What is a condition where there is an absence of neurons (ganglion cells) in the bowel wall and prevents the intestines from relaxing properly? hirschsprung's disease
What is another name for hirschsprung's disease? congenital aganglionic megacolon
What happens if hirschsprung's disease is left undiagnosed? can lead to toxic megacolon
What condition refers to the illnesses that cause chronic inflammation in the intestines? IBD- inflammation bowel disease
What are the two types of IBDs? *Crohn's disease *Ulcerative colitis
What is another name for Crohn's disease? regional enteritis
What is Crohn's disease? chronic disorder that affects the terminal ileum, but can affect other parts of the intestine; affects all layers of the bowel wall.
What are the three basic layers of the small instestines? (inside to outside) 1. mucosa 2. muscle 3. serosa
What is fibrosis of the intestines? thickening and rigidity of the intestinal wall
What does Crohn's disease look like radiographically? "cobblestone appearance", stricture "string sign", skip lesions, decreased or absent haustral folds
Which quadrant is normally affected with Crohn's disease? RLQ
T/F: Crohn's disease can increase the risk of fistulas. true
What is Ulcerative colitis? mucosal disease of the colon; affects mucosa and submucosa of the rectosigmoid, begins in the anus & ascends into the rectosigmoid
Radiographically, what does ulcerative colitis look like? "stovepipe sign"/ lead pipe, lack of haustral sacculations in descending colon
Which is more common, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis? ulcerative colitis
What is it called when the colon and rectum are removed; small intestine is attached to the anal canal? ileoanal anastomosis/ "J pouch"
What is it called when the colon and rectum is removed and a stoma is created? protocolectomy w/ ileostomy
Which IBD type increases the risk for megacolon? ulcerative colitis
T/F: IBS is an inflammation disease. false; IBD is an inflammation disease; IBS is a functional disorder
What IBS stand for? Irritable bowel syndrome
What is a fistula? an abnormal connection between 2 organs or vessels
What is extreme inflammation & distention of colon? toxic megacolon
What is the twisting or folding of the colon? volvulus
What has the coffee bean appearance? volvulus
What are masses of tissue arising from the bowel wall to project inward into the lumen? colon polyps
What are the two types of polyps? sessile & pedunculated
Created by: mokapis