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Quick Spine Review

C, T, L criteria/projections

Angulation for AP Axial C Spine? 15-20 degrees cephelad
SID for AP Axial C Spine? 40 inches
SID for AP Axial Obl C Spine? 60-72 inches
SID for Lateral C Spine? 72 inches
Central Ray enters where for C Spine(s)? C4
Structures demonstrated on on AP axial C spine? Open intervertebral disks, spinous processes center on vertebral bodies
Structures demonstrated on Lateral C Spine? Zygopophyseal Joints, open intervertebral disks, spinous process in profile.
Structures demonstrated on AP Axial Obl. C Spine? Intervertebral Foramina
Best demonstrates zygopophyseal joints of the C Spine? True Lateral Projection
Best demonstrates intervertebral foramina of C Spine? 45 degree Olbique
Centering point for AP T Spine? Half way in between jugular notch and xiphoid process (T7)
If PT is supine, what angulation would you use if it was a male with broad shoulders for T spine Lateral? 10-15 degrees cephalad
Breathing Instructions for Lateral T spine? Breathing Technique or suspend after expiration.
True or False? AP Axial Obl shows structures closest to IR. False. AP Axial Obl shows structures furthest from IR (side that is away from IR for example a PT in RPO would demonstrate left side joint structures)
True or False? PA Axial C Spine shows structures closest to IR. True. PA puts structures closer to IR for example PT in RAO, shows joint structures on the right side or side closest to IR.
Central ray enters which point for AP L spine projection? 1 1/2 inches above crest (for L spine only) OR enters at the crest for L Spine AND Sacrum.
Which projection best shows intervertebral foramina of the L spine? Lateral L spine projection
Which projection best shows the zygopophyseal joints of the L Spine? 30-60 degrees AP Oblique
Projection that best displays zygopophyseal joints of the T spine? 70 degrees AP Obl (20 degrees from true lateral)
What characteristics of the Cervical vertebrae differ from T, or L vertebrae? Bifid spinous processes
Characteristics of the Thoracic vertebrae that differ from C or L vertebrae? Costal Facets and Demi facts (for articulations with the ribs)
Characteristics of the Lumbar vertebrae that differ from C or T vertebrae? Has Accessory Process (on the back of each transverse process) and a Mamillary process (on the back of each superior articular process)
How many "True" Vertebrae are there? How many "False"? 24 'True' Vertebrae (movable) 2 'False' or Fused Vertebra
How many vertebrae are present in early life? 33
What are the 'primary' curvatures of the spine? Thoracic and Pelvic (present at time of birth)
What are the 'secondary' curvatures of the spine? (Develop after birth)Cervical (3-4+ mos when child behinds to hold its head/sit) and Lumar 1-2 yrs when child starts to walk.
Curvatures of the spine? Lordotic (Cervical and Lumbar)Convex anteriorly Kyphotic (Thoracic and Pelvic)Concave anteriorly
What is Lordosis? Increase in the concavity of the Lumbar Spine
What is Scoliosis? Increased lateral curvature of the spine.
What is Kyphosis? Increased convexity of the Thoracic spine (humpback)
Three functions of the Vertebrae? 1- Encloses and protects the spinal column 2- Supports Head and Truck 3- Provides attachment for muscles
When a disk ruptures or protrudes into the vertebral canal imping on a spinal nerve: Its called? HNP Herniated Nucleus Pulposus or "Slipped Disk"
The outer, fibrocartilaginous part of the "disk" is called...? Anulus Fibrosus
The centeral mass of soft, pulpy, semigelatinous material inside the "disk" is called...? Nucleus Pulposus
Which vertebrae is the "Dens" located on? C2 the Axis
Which projection shows the dens through the foramen magnum? The Fuch's method
SID for Ap Open Mouth c1-c2 (Odontoid) Projection? 30inches
True or False? For AP Open Mouth, line up the lower edge of upper incisors to the mastoid tips (Occlusal plane/base of skull)- perpendicular to the IR. True.
What is the purpose of using a breathing technique for Lateral T Spine? To blur out ribs and lung shadows.
Which projection of the C Spine instructs you to "phonate ah"? AP Open mouth; helps depress tongue to the floor of the mouth, and does not obstruct anatomy.
Centering point for AP Oblique L spine? Center at 2inches medial to the ASIS and 1-1 1/2 inches above the Iliac Crest.
If PT's spine can not be horizontal for a Lateral L spine, what do you do? Angle the central ray 5 degrees (male) or 8 degrees (female) caudad- due to the width of the pelvis.
Centering point for the Lumbosacral junction or SPOT (L5-S1)? 2 inches posterior to the ASIS; 1 1/2 inches inferior to the Iliac Crest.
Centering point for AP Sacrum? 15 degrees cephelad; 2 inches superior to the pubic symphysis
Centering and angulation for AP SI joints? AP Oblique SI joints? AP- 30-35 degrees cephalad 1 1/2inches above pubic symphysis. Oblique- 0 degrees. Rotate PT 25-30 degrees; 1 inch medial to elevated ASIS. (shows si joint furthest from IR)
Centering/Angulation for AP coccyx? Lateral? AP- 2 inches superior to pubic symphysis; 10 degrees caudad Lateral- 0 degrees; 3 1/2 inches posterior and 2 inches inferior to the ASIS
Centering for Lateral Sacrum? 0 degrees. 3 1/2 inches posterior to ASIS.
Created by: kbay29