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PSYC 225

Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
industry versus inferiority the fourth of Erikson's eight psychosocial crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent
latency Freud's term for middle childhood, during which children's emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet. Freud thought that sexual conflict from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting forth again at puberty
social comparison the tendency to assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers
resilience the capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress
family structure the legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily and so on.
family function the way a family works to meet the needs of its members. Children need families to provide basic material necessities, to encourage learning, to help them develop self-respect, to nurture friendships, and to foster harmony and stability
nuclear family a family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 8
extended family a family of three or more generations living in one household
polygamous family a family consisting of one man, several wives, and their children
child culture the particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society
aggressive-rejected rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior
withrawn-rejected rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior
bullying repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person
bully-victim someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well (aka provocative victims)
preconventional moral reasoning Kohlberg's first level of moral reasoning, emphasizing rewards and punishments
conventional moral reasoning Kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing social rules
postconventional moral reasoning Kohlberg's third level of moral reasoning, emphasizing moral principles
Erikson's theory industry and inferiority
industry developing a sense of competence at useful skills (schools provide many opportunities)
inferiority pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well (family environment, teachers, and peers can contribute to negative feelings)
initiative willing to try knew things, but differs from industry as it has the inferiority complex
self-concept in middle childhood more refined self image
refined me-self in middle childhood make social comparisons and emphasize competencies (both positive and negative)
cognitive development affects structure of self-concept in middle childhood perspective talking
social and cultural development affect content of self-concept in middle childhood real self vs. ideal self
real self how child sees themselves as who he or she is
ideal self how child perceives self as idea that other have of him or her (mom is a good cook, I am a girl and will grow up to be like mom, so I should be a good cook)
influences on self-esteem culture, child-rearing practices, messages from adults, attributions (mastery-oriented, learned helplessness)
emotional development in middle childhood develop self-conscious emotions, emotional understanding, and emotional self-regulation
self-conscious emotions pride and guilt
emotional understanding explain feelings using internal states and understand mixed emotions
emotional self-regulation motivated by self-esteem and peer approval, emotional self-efficacy
middle childhood usually focuses on fairness causing prejudice to decline
understanding diversity and inequality by early school years, children associate power and privilege with white people and inferior status with people of color (in absence of info, children may fill in the gaps with info they encounter in the media)
in-group and out-group biases in-group favoritism, out-group prejudice, and out-group favoritism
time someone might favor the out-group individual who has been rejected by the in-group or individual who belongs to a minority group
peer groups formed from proximity, similarity, and adopt similar dress and behavior, and have a culture of relational aggression and exclusion
peer acceptance categories popular (popular-prosocial, popular-antisocial), rejected (rejected-aggressive, rejected-withdrawn), controversial, neglected
popular category male punks, female goody too-shoes, etc.
rejected bullies, people that just don't hang out with people
controversial put at the top or bottom of the list (people love them or hate them)
neglected no one or one person puts them on list (excluded)
bullies and their victims about 10% to 20% of children are bullies, and about 15 to 30% are repeatedly victimized
victimization leads to adjustment problems, including depression, loneliness, low self-esteem, and poor school performance
how to reduce bullying change youth environments, promote prosocial behaviors, and enlist young people's cooperation
gender stereotypes in middle childhood extend stereotypes to include personalities and school subjects, but are more flexible about behavior
gender identity in middle childhood boys are more masculine and girls are less feminine
sex-segregation strengthens during middle childhood
gender interaction in middle childhood varies with culture
ethnically integrated classrooms... might reduce gender-typed peer communication as some children's interaction style influences others
friendship in middle childhood personal qualities, trust become important, more selective in choosing friends, friendships can last several years, influence each other's behavior
family relationships with parents and siblings are influenced by location of the family (more rural, more likely to be with family)
sibling interaction varies girl-girl are nice in middle childhood and mean during adolescence, while boy-boy are rivals in middle childhood and nice during adolescence
parents in middle childhood start to back off a bit and let children make their own decisions (coregulation)
types of families traditional, employed parents, one-child, gay & lesbian parents, single parents, divorced parents, blended (Brady Bunch), extended families
divorce more likely to occur as children become older
extended families are decreasing in society, except in Mexican-America
immediate consequences of parental divorce instability, conflict, drop in income, parental stress, disorganization
consequences of divorce affected by... age, temperament and sex
long-term consequences of parental divorce improved adjustment after 2 years, boys, children with difficult temperaments more likely to have problems, Father's involvement affect adjustment (mother usually takes custody and there is a drop in income, less money with two households)
mother-stepfather blended families most frequent, boys usually adjust quickly, girls adapt less favorably, older children and adolescents of both sexes display more problems
father-stepmother blended families often leads to reduced father-child contact, children in father's custody often react negatively, girls and stepmothers slow to get along at first, more positive interaction later
maternal employment and child development benefits higher self-esteem for woman, positive family and peer relations, fewer gender stereotypes among children, better grades among children, more father involvement
drawbacks of maternal employment and child development less time for children, risk of ineffective parenting
support for working parents flexible schedules, job sharing, sick leave, involvement of other parent, equal pay and opportunities, quality childcare
Created by: Nicolekr