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PSYC 225

Chapter 7

middle childhood the period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from ages 6 to 11
body mass index (BMI) a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters
childhood overweight in a child, having a BMI above the 85% percentile, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control's 1980 standards for children of a given age
childhood obesity in a child, having a BMI above the 95% percentile, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control's 1980 standards for children of a given age
asthma a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which inflammation narrows the airways from the nose and mouth to the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. Signs and symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing
concrete operational thought Piaget's term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions
classification the logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common.
reaction time the time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eyeblink) or cognitively (with a thought)
selective attention the ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others
sensory memory the component of the information-processing system in which incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed (aka sensory register)
working memory the component of the information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs (formerly called short-term memory)
long-term memory the component of the information-processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely
knowledge base a body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area
control processes mechanisms (including selective attention, metacognition, and emotional regulation) that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and flow of information within the information-processing system (aka executive processes)
metacognition "thinking about thinking," or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task
pragmatics the practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context
immersion a strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (usually the majority) language that a child is learning
bilingual schooling a strategy in which the school subjects are taught in both the learner's original language and the second (majority) language.
ESL (English as a second language) an approach to teaching English in which all children who do not speak English are placed together in an intensive course to learn basic English so that they can be educated in the same classrooom as native English speakers
hidden curriculum the unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and every other aspect of learning in a school
trends in Math and Science (TIMSS) an international assessment of the math and science skills of fourth- and eighth-graders. Useful but different countries' scores are not always comparable because sample selection, test administration, and content validity are hard to keep uniform
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) Inagurated in 2001, a planned five-year cycle of international trend studies in the reading ability of fourth-graders
No Child Left Behind Act A U.S. law enacted in 2001 that was intended to increase accountability in education by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering standardized tests to measure school achievement
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) an ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. children's achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects over time; nicknamed "The Nation's Report Card."
charter school a public school with its own set of standards that is funded and licensed by the state or local district in which it is located
private school a school funded by parents and sponsoring institutions. Such schools have control over admissions, hiring, and specifics of curriculum, although some regulations apply
parochial school non-public schools organized by a religious group, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Muslim, etc. The curriculum, discipline, and many instructors in the type of school reflect the beliefs of the religious body, which often provides substantial financial support
voucher a monetary commitment by the government to pay for the education of a child. These vary a great deal from place to place, not only in amount and availability, but in restrictions as to who gets them and what schools accept them.
home schooling education in which children are taught at home, usually by their parents, instead of attending any school, public or private
aptitude the potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge
IQ (Intelligence quotient) test a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school. Originally, intelligence was defined by mental age divided by chronological ages, time 100-hence the term itself
achievement test a measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other subject
multiple intelligences the idea that human intelligence is comprised of a varied set of abilities rather than a single, all-encompassing one.
comorbid refers tot he presence of two or more disease conditions at the same time in the same porson
multifinality a basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one cause can have many (multiple) final manifestations
equifinality a basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one symptom can have many causes
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a condition in which a person not only has great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments but also is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive
bipolar disorder a condition characterized by extreme mood swings, from euphoria to deep depression, not caused by outside experiences
learning disability a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by another disorder, or by an unusually stressful home environment
dyslexia unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment
dyscalculia unusual difficulty with math, probably originating from a distinct part of the brain
autism spectrum disorder any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impaired communication, and unusual play
least restrictive environment (LRE) a legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be exptected to learn
response to intervention (RTI) an education strategy that uses early intervention to help children who demonstrate below-average achievement. Only children who are not helped are designate for more intense measures
individual education plan (IEP) a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs
characteristics of body growth in middle childhood slow, regular pattern in which the lower portion of the body is growing fastest, the bones lengthen, the muscles are very flexible and all permanent teeth arrive
characteristics of brain development in middle childhood weight of the brain increases by 10% w/ considerable growth in the white matter in the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex and gray matter and synaptic connections & myelination occur w/ synaptic pruning resulting in greater lateralization of hemispheres
causes of obesity in middle childhood overweight parents, early rapid growth or malnutrition, low socioeconomic status, family eating habits (not enough nutritious food), response to food cues (clean plate club), low physical energy (60 minutes of not sitting a day is not enough), television
risks for obese children become overweight adults, health risks (blood pressure, cholesterol, respiratory probs, diabetes, liver/gall bladder damage, cancer), psychological risks (feeling unattractive, stereotyping & teasing, depression, prob behaviors & early puberty & sex probs
illnesses in middle childhood acute illnesses first two years of school (usu. have cold/flu) because of exposure as the immune system is still developing, chronic diseases (15-20%) and severe illnesses (2%)
children's understanding of the biological processes underlying health and illness... increase with age (school-age children often combine biological explanations with cultural ideas) (problem because they don't understand AIDS and cancer)
motor development in middle childhood gross motor skills improvements (flexibility, balance, agility, and force) and fine motor skill gains (writing and drawing)
physical play development child-organized games with rules (sports and invented game), video games (help improve hand-eye coordination), adult-organized sports, and physical education
developmentally appropriate sports build on children's interests (emphasize enjoyment and lets kids contribute), teaches age-appropriate skills (limits practices), discourages unhealthy competition (focuses on personal and team improvement)
rough and tumble play friendly chasing and play-fighting that peaks in middle child-hood likely as a means to establish dominance hierarchy. It is more common among boys even in cultures where girls are allowed to partake in this activity
school recess unstructured activities that help foster children's heath and competence physically, academically, and socially as children are able to get rid of energy and focus on learning (unfortunately 1/4 of U.S. schools no longer provide this)
concrete operational stage Piaget's development stage in which a child's ability to think logically is best when thinking about "concrete" things (aka the things they can touch). This stage is characterized by increased organization, flexibility, and ability to predict.
conservation Piaget's term for the understanding that some properties of an object or substance remain the same even when appearance is altered in some way (the amount of liquid in a container remains the same despite being poured into a differently shaped container)
Horizontal decalage the idea that differences in performance related tasks can occur, but that it will happen in a logical progression
5-7 shift time in which mental operations develop and children can do stuff in their head
classification relationship between a superordinate class and its subclasses (relation of inclusion) and includes the categorization of objects by multiple criteria (shape, color, etc.)
limitations of concrete operational theory mental operations work best with objects that are concrete (problems with abstract ideas) and the continuum of acquisition (master concrete operational tasks gradually)
attention in middle childhood becomes more selective, adaptable and planful
planning forming mental representations of actions needed to achieve a goal (looked at child doing a maze with a marker to show where child planned)
steps in planning postpoining action to weigh alternatives, organizing task materials, remembering steps of plan, monitoring how well plan works, revising if necessary
development of memory stages 1) rehearsal 2) organization 3) elaboration
rehearsal memory development in early grade school
organization memory development soon after rehearsal that is helped by an increased knowledge base
elaboration memory development that occurs at the end of middle childhood and enables children to remember meaningful chunks of information
combining memory (development and logical stages two explanations work together - increased logical reasoning skills and increased memory and information processing abilities
theory of mind in middle childhood see mind as active, constructive, understand more about sources of knowledge (mental inferences, false beliefs), consider interactions of variables, and school promotes developing theory o fmind
cognitive development differs based on culture definition of intelligence is anchored in cultural contexts and cultures vary in emphasis on social competence and cognitive competence
intelligence quotient IQ score
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon studied cognitive competence ("mental age")
racial/ethnic differences in IQ or achievement test scores Chinese and Japanese consistently demonstrate higher performance on achievement tests, but families emphasize academic achievement, and adolescents prioritize differently - family and school take precedence over social activities with peers
education a form of socialization in which adults engage in deliberate teaching of the young to ensure that they acquire specialized knowledge and skills (transmitting culture's knowledge and skills) (doesn't mention going to school - cultures have different edu)
schooling and cognitive development cross-cultural studies support the conclusion that school experiences are causally linked to emergence of advanced cognitive experience
advanced cognitive experience from schooling and cognitive development children who attend school acquire complex concepts and info-processing strategies, better at generalization of a concept to a new setting, affects rate children progress through Piaget's stages
formal schooling intention to educate in formal setting
academic motivation ability to try hard and persist at school tasks in the face of difficulties
two approaches to school tasks mastery orientation and performance orientation
mastery orientation children are motivated to learn, try hard, and improve their performance (goal is to perform at highest level)
performance orientation children are motivated by their level of performance, ability and incentives for trying
Created by: Nicolekr
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