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Ch 8 and 10

TermDefinition
Solute the minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
Solvent the liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.
Dissociation process in which an ionic compound separates into ions as it dissolves.
Dispersion breaking into small pieces that spread throughout.
Ionization the condition of being dissociated into ions
Acid a chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red; typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid of this kind.
Indicator a compound that changes color at a specific pH value or in the presence of a particular substance and can be used to monitor acidity, alkalinity, or the progress of a reaction.
Base a substance capable of reacting with an acid to form a salt and water, or (more broadly) of accepting or neutralizing hydrogen ions.
Neutralization reaction between an acid and base.
Salt any chemical compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, with all or part of the hydrogen of the acid replaced by a metal or other cation.
pH a figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid, and higher values more alkaline.
Buffer solution that is resistant to large changes in pH.
Electrolyte substance that ionizes or dissociation into ions when it dissolves in water.
Radioactivity the emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
Radioisotope a radioactive isotope.
Nuclear radiation process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting particles of ionizing radiation.
Alpha Particle a helium nucleus emitted by some radioactive substances, originally regarded as a ray.
Beta particle a fast-moving electron emitted by radioactive decay of substances.
Gamma Ray penetrating electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength than X-rays.
Background Radiation the uniform microwave radiation remaining from the Big Bang
Strong nuclear force one of the four basic forces in nature
Fission the action of dividing or splitting something into two or more parts.
Chain Reaction a chemical reaction or other process in which the products themselves promote or spread the reaction, which under certain conditions may accelerate dramatically.
Critical mass the minimum amount of fissile material needed to maintain a nuclear chain reaction.
Fusion the process of causing a material or object to melt with intense heat, esp. so as to join with another.
Plasma the colorless fluid part of blood, lymph, or milk, in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended.
Created by: TristanAcker