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BioPsy Chpt 11

Reproductive behaviors

the SRY gene The (sex determining region on the Y chromosome)gene which causes the undifferentiated primitive gonads to develop into sperm-producing testes.
How do sex hormones affect neurons? Sex hormones, which are steroids, bind to receptors on the membrane, activate certain proteins in cytoplasm, activate/inactivate particular genes
What would be tyhe genital appearance of a mammal exposed to high levels of both androgens and estrogens during early development? What about low levels of both? High levels will appear male. Low levels will appear female. Genital development depends mostly on the presence or absence of androgens. Nearly independent of estradiol.
PowerPoint Red term: Steroid hormones Contain 4 carbon rings derived from cholesterol. Examples: Cortisol, Testosterone, Estradiol, Progesterone
Powerpoint Red term: Sex hormones Androgens and Estrogens
PowerPoint Red term: Androgens A catagory of chemicals not a specific chemical itself. Hormones that are more abundant in males. Testosterone! Increase the growth of testes, cause Wolffian ducts to develop into smeinal vesicles and the vas deferens.
PowerPoint Red term: Estrogens Catagory of chemicals more abundant in females. Most prominent: estradiol. Prepares uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum and promotes pregnancy maintenance: Progesterone
PowerPoint Red term: Organizing effects -- Sensitive period Sensitive period: Window of time where hormones have long-lasting effects. E.g. sensitive period for genital formation is prenatal month 3-4/puberty
PowerPoint Red term: Activating effect temporary effect of a hormone, which occurs at any time in life while hormone is present
PowerPoint Red term: "sexually dimorphic nucleus" area of the anterior hypothalamus, larger in males than females-contributes to control of male sexual behavior
PowerPoint Red term: Gender identity sex with which an individual identifies and what we call ourselves. Gender identity is a human characteristic-a way of thinking about themselves with regard to gender differences.
PowerPoint Red term: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) The overdevelopment of the adrenal glands from birth. Genetic defect-reduced cortisol in adrenal gland causes increased testosterone production. Outcome=physical masuclinzation of female fetus.
PowerPoint Red term: Androgen insensitivity condition in which individuals with an XY chromosome pattern have the genital appearance of a female. aka: Testicular feminization
Glossary term: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) chemical released from the anterior pituitary gland, which enhances metabolic activity and elevates blood levels of sugar
Glossary term: Alpha-fetoprotein protein that binds with estradiol in the bloodstream of immature mammals
Glossary term: Androgen insensitivity condition in which individuals with an XY chromosome pattern have the genital appearance of a female. (See Testicular feminization)
Glossary term: Androgens testes-produced hormones that are more abundant in males
Glossary term: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) the overdevelopment of the adrenal glands from birth
Glossary term: Estradiol The most prominent type of estrogen. Contributes to female development, including certain aspects of brain differentiation. Research: low during early sensitive period.
Glossary term: Estrogens family of hormones that are more abundant in females
Glossary term: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) chemical released from the anterior pituitary; promotes the growth of a follicle in the ovary
Glossary term: Gender identity sex with which person identifies
Glossary term: Hermaphrodite individual who appears to be a mixture of male and female anatomies
Glossary term: Impotence the inability to have an erection
Glossary term: Intersexes people whose sexual development is intermediate or ambiguous
Glossary term: Leptin peptide produced by the body's fat cells
Glossary term: Luteinizing hormone (LH) hormone released from the anterior pituitary that causes the follicle to release an ovum
Glossary term: Menstral cycle a periodic variation in hormones and fertility over the course of about 28 days
Glossary term: Organizing effects long-lasting effects of a hormone that are present during a sensitive period early in development
Glossary term: Periovulatory period time around the middle of the menstrual cycle of maximum fertility and high estrogen levels
Glossary term: Progesterone steroid hormone that prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized ovum and promotes the maintenance of pregnancy
Glossary term: Sexual selection tendency for a gene to spread in the population if it makes individuals more appealing to the opposite sex
Glossary term: Sexually dimorphic nucleus area in the anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females and contributes to controm of male sexual behavior
Glossary term: SRY gene (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) gene that causes the primitive gonads to develop into testes
Glossary term: Steroid hormones hormones that contain four carbon rings
Glossary term: Testes (testis) sperm-producing organs
Glossary term: Testicular feminization condition in which individuals with an XY chromosome pattern have the genital appearance of a female
Glossary term: Testosterone an androgen chemical
Glossary term: Wolffian ducts precursors to male internal structures
T/F 1. Hormones are capable of inducing long-lasting changes throughout the body. True
T/F 2. Activating effects can occur at any time in life when a hormone temporarily activates a particular response. True
T/F 3. Nature's "default setting" is to make every mammal a female in its external anatomy. True
T/F 4. The sexually dimorphic nucleus is larger in females than males. False
T/F 5. Stimulation of the medial preoptic area increases sexual activity in rodents. True
T/F 6. Testosterone levels continue to increase throughout a human male's lifetime. False
T/F 7. High levels of estrogen and progesterone will prevent ovulation. True
T/F 8. The changes in estrogen levels just before menstruation are the cause of PMS. False --see "Activating effects of sex hormones"
T/F 9. In general, men are more jealous of sexual infidelity than women. True
10. There are obvious differences in external anatomy of homosexual humans compared to heterosexual humans. False
11. Although harmful in excessive amounts, the synthesis of steroids depends on: a. cholesterol. b. insulin. c. ethanol. d. heavy metals. cholesterol
12. Two major classes of sex hormones are: androgens and estrogens
13. Wolffian ducts are found in: female and male fetuses early in development
14. What would cause a young mammal's external genitals to have an appearance intermediate between a male and a female? See "Organizing effects of sexual hormones"
15. The overall mechanism of early sexual differentiation has been described by saying that nature's "default setting" is to make every mammal: Female
16. The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located in the: See "Organizing effects of sex hormones"
17. According to rodent studies, testosterone exerts a major part of its effect on: See "Organizing effects of sex hormones"
`18. The estradiol normally found in the bloodstream of a female rat fetus neither masculinizes nor feminizes its development because it: See "Organizing effects of sex hormones"
19. One function served by alpha–fetoprotein in the developing rat fetus is to: See "Organizing effects of sex hormones"
20. Damage to the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus in rats would most likely result in: decreased sexual activity
21. By blocking dopamine release, some antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin levels also: decreased sexual activity
22. Sildenafil (Viagra) works by: increasing release of nitric oxide in the hypothalamus and penis.
23. At what point in the menstrual cycle, if any, are women who are not on birth–control pills most likely to initiate sexual activity? about midway between two menstrual periods
24. Many female mammals become very attentive after delivering their babies largely because of a sudden: see "Parental Behavior"
25. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) occurs because the adrenal gland releases: see "Gender Identity and Gender-Differentialted Behavior"
26.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) occurs because the adrenal gland releases: see "Gender Identity and ..."
27. Congenital adrenal hypertrophy occurs when the adrenal gland releases_____than average levels of cortisol, causing hypothalamus and pituitary to release_____than average levels of ACTH. see "Gender Identity and Gender..."
28. Certain individuals with an XY chromosome pattern have the genital appearance of a female. This condition is known as: see "Gender Identity..."
29. When a newborn baby is found to be intersexed, how have most authorities over the past few decades recommended raising the child? When in doubt, call the child female.
30. In the Dominican Republic, certain genetic males who were regarded in early childhood as girls have developed into boys at puberty. What happened to their gender identity? see "Gender Identity..."
31.In the Dominican Republic, certain genetic males who were regarded in early childhood as girls have developed into boys at puberty. What happened to their gender identity? See "Sexual Orientation"
32. Sexual orientation has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT: See "Sexual Orientation"
33. Most homosexual men, as compared to heterosexual men, have: See " Sexual Orientation"
34. What has been found in studies that relate male homosexuality in humans to prenatal stressors? The findings are inconclusive.
35. On average, the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are of nearly equal size in ________ females, whereas the right hemisphere is a few percent larger in ________ males. See: "Sexual Orientation"
Three ways steroids exert their effects Influence: Bind to membrane receptors, like neurotransmitters, exert rapid effects. Enter cells and activate certain proteins in the cytoplasm. Bind to receptors that bind to chromosomes, where they activate or inactivate certain genes.
Created by: mrosshogan