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Chap 4 Notes

Chapter 4 Notes

Root words originating from Latin Generally refer to Anatomy of the body
Root words originating from Greek Generally refer to Diagnosis and surgery
Suffix Modifier attached to the end of the root word to clarify the meaning
Prefix Attached to the front of the root word to clarify its meaning
Combining Vowels Used to connect the prefix, root word or suffix parts of the term
Medical and Pharmaceutical nomenclature is a system made up of these four elements Root words, Prefixes, Suffixes, Combining Vowels
The Cardiovascular System Distributes blood throughout the body using blood vessels called arteries, capillaries and veins.
Blood is made up of Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets and plasma
Another word for red blood cell Erythrocytes
Another word for White blood cell Leukocytes
Systolic Phase When blood is forced out of the heart, the increased pressure on the system is called the systolic phase. 1st number on a bp reading
Diastolic Phase AKA the relaxation pressure. the second number reported in a blood pressure monitor
Endocrine System consists of glands that secrete hormones, chemicals that assist in regulating body functions.
Organs that act as endocrine glands as well as organs liver, stomach, pancreas, and kidneys
organs that belong primarily to the endocrine system pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland and the gonads (ovaries and testes)
Pituitary gland Produced multiple hormones and is located a the base of the brain. Controls the bodies growth and releases hormones into the bloodstream that control the activity of the other glands
Thyroid Gland Located just below the larynx and releases hormones important for regulating body metabolism
parathyroid gland set of 4 smaller parathyroid glands located on the thyroid gland
thymus gland located beneath the sternum
Pancreas produces insulin and glucagon for the body
Adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys. they produce such hormones as aldosterone, cortisol (hydrocortisone), androgens and estrogens
The Gastrointestinal Tract located in the abdomen and surrounded by the peritoneal lining. contains the organs involved in digestion of food and absorbtion of nutrients
GI Tract Organs stomach, small and large intestine, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas
Alimentary Tract refers to the system that goes from the mouth to the anus.
Alimentary organs lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, rectum and anus in addition to the GI tract
hepatic duct carries bile to the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum
pancreas located behind the stomach, also contributes enzymes to the digestive process
integumentary system the covering of the body, includes skin, hair and nails
Hair Keratinized cells
Parts of the integumentary system hair, nails, skin, mammary glands/ breasts
skin is composed of dermis and epidermis
epidermis has no blood or nerves and is constantly discarding dead cells
dermis made of living cells containing capillaries, nerves and lymphatics. also contains subaceous glands, sweat glands and hair
Lymph and blood systems responsible for collecting plasma water that leaves the blood vessels, filtering it for impurities, through its lymphnodes and returning the lymph fluid back to general circulation
lymphocytes a type of white blood cell that attacks bacteria and diseased cells
Parts of the Lymph and blood systems Spleen, lymph node, lymph vessels. thymus, tonsils, spleen, adenoids are lymphoid organs outside the system
Flexor Movement an expansion or outward movement by muscles
Muscular system the body contains 600 muscles, attached to the bone by tendons
involuntary muscles operate automatically and are found in the heart, the stomach or in the walls of blood vessels
antagonist muscles muscles that contract or bring the limb back to the original position
Nervous System the bodies system of communication
neuron basic functional unit, also transmits information from the brain o the entire body
Central nervous system brain, spinal cord
peripheral nervous system composed of nerves that branch out of the spinal cord
autonomic nervous system subdivision of the peripheral nervous system, controls the automatic functions of the body eg. breathing, digestion
somatic nervous system subdivision of the peripheral nervous system, controls he voluntary actions eg. muscle movements
Skeletal system protects soft organs and provides structure and support for the body's organ systems
skeletal system makeup mostly osseous tissue. has 206 bones called axial
Female reproductive system produces hormones and provides for childbirth, controls menstruation
female reproductive system is made up of: vagina, uterus, fallopian tubed, ovaries and the external genitalia, as well as the mammary glnds
Male reproductive system produces sperm and secretes the hormone testosterone
Male reproductive system contains primarily the testicles, seminal glands, prostate gland,
foreskin prepuce
Respiratory system brings oxegyn into the body through inhalation and expels carbon dioxide gas by exhaling
Respiratory system contains: sinuses, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, lungs, bronchial tubes, alveoli, and diaphram
Urinary Tract responsible for removing waste materials from the blood.
urinary tract includes: kidneys, ureters, urinary blader, and urethra
nephron functional unit of the kidney
The ear controls hearing and the maintenance of the bodies equilibrium
The inner ear labrynth consists of: Vestibule, the cochlea, and the semicircular canals
the middle ear consists of 3 bony structures: malleus, incus, and stapes
conjunctiva the bloodrich membrane between the eye and eyelid.
lacrimal glands several glans that secrete fluid to protect and lubricate the eye
3 layers of the eye 1. outer layer= sclera (white part) and the cornea 2. the choroid; contains blood vessels that nourish the eye 3. retina
Created by: megancarter



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