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Chap 1 notes

Notes from Chap. 1

TermAnswer/Definition
Sumerians ancient people from @4000bc that believed demons were the cause of illness
Imhotep Egyptian 1st physician known by name, priest and advisor to pharoahs, Egyptian god of medicine
Hippocrates Greek physician @ 400bc. developed more scientific approach that guided western medicine.
Hippocratic Oath written by Hippocrates for Physicians to honor and follow
Aesculapius Ancient greek physician said to have ben such a great Dr., that he was killed by Zeus at Plutos request and then named the god of Medicine
Panacea goddess of medical herbs
Quinine Medicine made from the bark of the Peruvian Cinchona tree to treat malaria
First anesthetic cocaine, which lead way for procaine or novacaine
Shen Nung Chinese emporer @3000bc, first know trial and error testing on herbs and plant. established over 365 herbs for health treatments
advantages for synthetic drugs cost, effectiveness and availability
salicylic acid found in the bark of the white willow tree, derived by chemists. a synthetic called acetylsalicylic acid is now popularly known as Aspirin
Papyrus Ebers Egyptian 1100 pg scroll from 1500bc that includes 800 prescriptions and using about 700 plants
Shen Nung Pen Tsao the first official Chinese herbal listing- 365 herbs for treatments. early forerunner to the FDA
Dioscorides Greek Physician who wrote De Materia Medica. 5 books that describe over 600 plants and healing properties
Galen greek physician who believed that their are 4 "humors" in good health. Advocated "bleedin" to assist in the balance.
Synthetic with chemicals combining simpler chemicals into more complex compounds. not found in nature.
Pharmacology Study of drugs and their properties, uses and applications and effects
Pharmacognosy Derived from the greek word Pharmakon, the study of physical or chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs as well as the search for new drugs
pharmacopeia an authoritative listing of drugs and issues related to their use
Pharmaceutical of or about drugs, also a drug product.
Panacea a cure all
Materia Medica generally pharmacology but also refers to the drugs in use
Antitoxin a substance that acts against a toxin in the body; also a vaccine containing antitoxins is used to fight disease
Antibiotic substance which harms or kills microorganisms like bacteria or fungi
hormones chemicals produced by the body that regulate body function and process
human genome complete set of genetic material contained in a human cell
prescription a drug that has been ordered by a physician to treat a patient
OBRA Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act- requires pharmacists to counsel Medicaid patients about their prescriptions
Results of managed care 1. majority of prescriptons now being paid for by private 3rd parties such as HMO's 2. a trend toward using formularies that are approved for use. Lists rely substantially on substituting generic drugs 3. Theraputic substitution= same function but less $
Data information entered into and stored in a computer
Louis Pasteur Showed that heat can kill microorganisms associated with food spoilage
Fleming discovered penicillin can kill bacteria
Watson and crick identified the structure of DNA
Patenting protects against illeagal copying of new discoveries
Created by: megancarter