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Sensation and percep

sensation ability to detect a stimulus and perhaps, to turn that detection into a private experience
perception the act of giving meaning to a detected sensation
quale in philosophy, a private conscious experience of sensation and perception
dualism the idea that the mind has an existence separate from the material world of the body
materialism the idea that the only thing that exists is matter, and that all things, including the mind and consciousness, are the results of interaction between bits of matter
panpsychism the idea that the mind exists as a property of all matter- that is, that all matter has consciousness
psychophysics the science of defining quantitive relationships between physical and psychological (subjective) events
two-point touch threshold the minimum distance at which two stimuli (two simultaneous touches) are just predictable as separate
just noticeable difference (JND) the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, or the minimum change in a stimulus that enables it to be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus
Weber's law the principal describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the JNDis a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus
Weber fraction the constant proportionality in Weber's law
Fechner's law a principal describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation increases proportionality to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity
absolute threshold the minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time
methods of constant a psychological method in which many stimuli, ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable (or rarely to almost always perceivable different from a reference stimulus), are presented one at a time. Participants reply with "yes/no" "same/different"
method of limits a psychological method in which the particular dimension of a stimuli, or the difference between two stimuli, is varied incrementally until the participant responds differently
method of adjustment a method of limits in which the subject controls the change in the stimulus
magnitude estimation a psychophysical method in which the participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli
Steven's Power law principal that relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus magnitude raised to an exponent
cross modality matching the ability to match the intensities of sensations that come from a different sensory modalities. this ability enables insight into sensory differences. EX: a listener might adjust brightness of a light until it matches the loudness of a tone
supertaster ab individual whose perception of taste sensations is the most intense
signal detection theory quantifies the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of a noise. measures obtained from a series of presentations are sensitivity (d")and criterion of the observer
criterion In signal detection theory, an internal threshold that is set by the observer. if the internal response is above criterion, the observer gives one response (yes i hear that). below criterion, observer gives another response (no i hear nothing)
sensitivity in signal detection theory, a value that defines the ease with which an observer can tell the difference between the presence and absence of a stimulus or the difference between stimulus 1 and stimulus 2
receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve) in studies of SDT the graphical plot of the hit rate as a function of the false alarm rate. if these are the same points fall on the diagonal indicating the observer can't tell the difference between the presence and absence of the signal
sine wave hearing a waveform for which variation as a function of time is a sine function also called pure tone 2. in vision a pattern for which variation in a property like brightness or color as a function of space is a sine function
period or wavelength the time (or space) required for one cycle of a repeating waveform
phase 1. in vision, the relative position of a grating 2. in hearing, the relative timing of a sine wave
Fourier Analysis a mathematical procedure by which any signal can be separated into component sine waves at different frequencies. combining these sine waves will reproduce the original signal
spatial frequency number of cycles of a grating per unit of visual angle (usually specified in cycles per degree)
cycles per degree number of pairs of dark and bright bars per degree of visual angle
doctrine of specific nerve energies a doctrine, formulated by Johannes Muler, stating that the nature of a sensation depends on which sensory fibers are stimulated, not on how fibers are stimulated
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves (one for each side of the body) that originate in the brain stem and reach sense organs and muscles through openings in the skull
polysensory blending multiple sensory systems
vitalism the idea that there is a force in life that is distant from physical entities
synapse the function between neurons that allows information transfer
neurotransmitter a chemical substance used in neuronal communication at synapses
electroencephalography (EEG) a technique that, using many electrodes on the scalp, measures electrical activity from populations of many neurons on the brain
event-related potential (ERP) a measure of electrical activity from a subpopulation of neurons in response to particular stimuli that requires averaging many EEG recordings
magnetoencephalograhy (MEG) a technique, similar to electroencephalography, that measures changes in magnetic activity across populations of many neurons in the brain
computed tomography (CT) an imaging technology that uses X-ray to create images of slices through volumes of material (ex: human body)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an imaging technology that uses the responses of atoms to strong magnetic fields to form images of structures like the brain
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) a variant of magnetic resonance imaging that makes it possible to measure localized patterns of activity in the brain. activated neurons provoke increased blood flow, which can be quantified by measuring changes in of the response of oxygenated and deoxyg
Blood oxygen level- dependent (BOLD) signal the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin that permits the localization of brain neurons that are most involved in a task
positron emission tomography (PET) an imaging technology that enables us to define locations in the brain where neurons are especially active by measuring the metabolism of brain cells using safe radioactive isotopes
Created by: jenvill3228
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