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research paper

european fashion A significant shift in culture occurred in France and elsewhere at the beginning of the 18th century, known as the Enlightenment In France, the sphere of influence for art, culture and fashion shifted from Versailles to Paris, where the educated bourgeoisie class gained influence and power in salons and cafés. The new fashions introduced therefore had a greater impact on society, affecting not only royalty and aristocrats, but also middle and even lower classes Ironically, the single most important figure to establish Rococo fashions was Louis XV’s mistress Madame Pompadour
Towards the end of the period, Marie Antoinette became the leader of French fashion, as did her dressmaker Rose Bertin
Extreme extravagance was her trademark, which ended up majorly fanning the flames of the French Revolution.
ashion designers gained even more influence during this era, as people scrambled to be clothed in the latest styles. Fashion magazines emerged during this era, originally aimed at intelligent readers,
but quickly capturing the attention of lower classes with their colorful illustrations and up-to-date fashion news. Even though the fashion industry was ruined temporarily in France during the Revolution
, it flourished in other European countries, especially England
During this period, a new silhouette for women was developing. Panniers, or wide hoops worn under the skirt that extended sideways, became a staple.
Extremely wide panniers were worn to formal occasions, while smaller ones were worn in everyday settings
Waists were tightly constricted by corsets, provided contrasts to the wide skirts. Plunging necklines also became common.
Skirts usually opened at the front, displaying an underskirt or petticoat
here were a few main types of dresses worn during this period. The Watteau gown had a loose back which became part of the full skirt and a tight bodice
The robe à la française also had a tight bodice with a low-cut square neckline, usually with large ribbon bows down the front, wide panniers, and was lavishly trimmed with all manner of lace, ribbon, and flower
The robe à l’anglais featured a snug bodice with a full skirt worn without panniers, usually cut a bit longer in the back to form a small train, and often some type of lace kerchief was worn around the neckline
Marie Antoinette introduced the chemise à la reine, a loose white gown with a colorful silk sash around the waist. This was considered shocking for women at first, as no corset was worn and the natural figure was apparent
Women’s heels became much daintier with slimmer heels and pretty decorations. At the beginning of the period, women wore their hair tight to the head, sometimes powdered or topped with lace kerchiefs, a stark contrast to their wide panniers.
owever, hair progressively was worn higher and higher until wigs were required. These towering tresses were elaborately curled and adorned with feathers, flowers, miniature sculptures and figures.
Hair was powdered with wheat meal and flour, which caused outrage among lower classes as the price of bread became dangerously high.
Men generally wore different variations of the habit à la française: a coat, waistcoat, and breeches. The waistcoat was the most decorative piece, usually lavishly embroidered or displaying patterned fabrics.
Lace jabots were still worn tied around the neck. Breeches usually stopped at the knee, with white stockings worn underneath and heeled shoes, which usually had large square buckles
Coats were worn closer to the body and were not as skirt-like as during the Baroque era. They were also worn more open to showcase the elaborate waistcoats.
Tricorne hats became popular during this period, often edged with braid and decorated with ostrich feathers. Wigs were usually worn by men, preferably white.
he cadogan style of men’s hair developed and became popular during the period, with horizontal rolls of hair over the ears. French elites and aristocrats wore particularly lavish clothing and were often referred to as ”Macaronis,
The lower class loathed their open show of wealth when they themselves dressed in little more than rags.
Fashion played a large role in the French Revolution. Revolutionaries characterized themselves by patriotically wearing the tricolor—red, white, and blue—on rosettes, skirts, breeches, etc.
Since most of the rebellion was accomplished by the lower class, they called themselves sans-culottes, or “without breeches,” as they wore ankle-length trousers of the working class
This caused knee breeches to become extremely unpopular and even dangerous to wear in Franc
Clothing became a matter of life or death; riots and murders could be caused simply because someone was not wearing a tricolor rosette and people wearing extravagant gowns or suits were accused of being aristocrats.
he Rococo era was defined by seemingly contrasting aspects: extravagance and a quest for simplicity, light colors and heavy materials, aristocrats and the bourgeoisie. This culmination produced a very diverse era in fashion like none ever before.
Although this movement was largely ended with the French Revolution, its ideas and main aspects strongly affected future fashions for decades.
c. 1650 The woman wears a high-waisted dress with a falling, wide lace collar and turned-back lace cuffs common during the early Baroque era. The man wears a cavalier-style outfit with a high-waisted jacket, wide lace collar,lace cuffs,and high boots.
Decorative canes became very popular during this period and many men would carry them around as an accessory.
1660 The woman on the left wears the German fashions of the period, with puffed sleeves, a small hooped skirt,and a fur hat.The woman on the right is dressed in the Scandinavian style,with a brocade palatine or capelet over her shoulders and a white cap.
1670 The woman wears a wide collar trimmed with ermine fur, a muff, a hood, and a velvet mask to keep out the cold. Her underskirt is trimmed with gold embroidery and her bodice and sleeves are trimmed with ribbons.
The man wears a long coat, breeches with hose underneath, and a wide-brimmed hat with feathers on it. He also carries a cane.
1690 The man wears Rhinegrave breeches under a long, buttoned coat, a lace jabot, and large boots. His hair is worn long and free in the style of Louis XIV.
The woman wears a high fontage headdress and the stiff stomacher that returned to fashion in the latter part of the Baroque period. Her decorative apron, headdress, and sleeves are all lavishly trimmed with lace.
1720 This period was a transition from Baroque to Rococo fashions, and so incorporated styles from both eras. The man wears a long coat buttons at the middle, knee breeches, hose, and buckled shoes.
His sleeves are loose and cuffed, showing the undershirt underneath. The woman wears a flowered robe à l’anglais with large cuffs and a lace collar.
1730 Both women wear a robe à la française in the “Watteau” or “flying” style, in which the back hung loose from the bodice. Small panniers are worn, but only aristocratic women and royalty wore the ridiculously wide panniers
The woman on the right’s bodice is adorned with ribbon bows down the front and has large cuffed sleeves. The woman on the left wears a lace cap common during the period.
1750 The woman on the left wears a hooded capuchin cape trimmed with fur and ribbons. The woman on the right wears a gown with large cuffed sleeves and a fichu around the neck and shoulders. She also wears a mobcap tied under the chin with a ribbon.
1770 The woman wears a solid colored gown with embroidery at the opening of the overskirt and bodice.A quilted underskirt is worn underneath.
She also has sleeves flared at the elbow and wears her hair powdered and curled, common during the last part of the Rococo era. The man wears a brocade silk vest under a long coat lined with silk with large buttonholes down the side
s well as a tricorn hat and buckled shoes. His hair is also powdered and is tied back with a ribbon.
Women’s clothing became much less restricting. Flexible stays replaced hard, tight-fitting corsets. Flowing lace collars replaced stiff ruffs.
EGO european history online With its strict, geometric form, courtly fashion emphasized the body-disciplining effect of clothing and its role in subjugating the body to the court etiquette of a centralist monarchy by ornate adornment.
ego The cone-shaped hoop skirt, first appearing around the middle of the 16th century, continued to dominate female fashion in a number of variations until the end of the 18th century.
EGO The corset or bodice drawn down deeply and tapering to a point at the front remained a central element of female clothing. It forced the female body into a strict geometric shape with a narrow waist and broad hips
EGO (further broadened by padding), thereby establishing the normative ideal of the female body with its hourglass shape
EGO An established repertoire of shapes and forms also emerged in male clothing, with the Spanish Heerpauke or Turkish trousers (usually filled with horsehair and sometimes accompanied by a codpiece)
EGO and a short, tight doublet and stockings, which from the mid-16th century were often knitted.
Male clothing also borrowed fashion elements that were popular in the army, such as the loose doublet, longer trousers and calf-high leather boots.
The colour black, usually ascribed to Spanish fashion, provides an example of how a common fashion culture can emerge in spite of marked political, religious and social differences
In spite of its association with Spanish fashion, black gained acceptance even in reformed Protestant countries. As an element of the so-called Dutch fashion, it gained acceptance in England,
North Germany, Scandinavia and even among the Quakers in North America. In their views on ethics, bodily discipline and gender as a physical trait, there were considerable similarities between these societies and Catholic, absolutist Castile.
The colour black came to symbolize respectability and decency – the central norms of the new middle classes
After the Peace of Westphalia (1648), the fashion of the absolutist French court – particularly under Louis XIV (1638–1715) – gained a position of dominance in European courtly fashion. Under French influence, fashion –
as an element of courtly etiquette – became even more stylized, becoming an instrument of power of the monarchy and a means of demonstrating visually both the privileges of the nobility and it dependence o
t the same time, the concept of theatrum mundi became influential in society and increasingly affected how social interaction was staged. This theatricalization of life was nowhere more developed than in courtly ceremonial practices.
The women in opulent manteaux (skirt and bodice) with padding at the hips and often a visible devantière (petticoat) were at the centre of court life, though neither as "partners" as in the Renaissance
nor as idealized figures as in the era of the minnesingers, but rather as charming decorations of the strictly patriarchal order.
Simultaneously, middle class Enlightenment influences from Holland and England became apparent.
To simplify somewhat, two distinct concepts of ethics and morality emerged during this period. One continued to be defined by the ceremonial culture of the court;
n the 18th century, the dress of the nobility was characterized by the following elements until shortly before the French Revolution
for the ladies, broad expansive hoop skirts with panniers (frames) and tightly laced bodices (laced-up corsets and breastplates), Stecker and Echelles of expensive damask, satin and velvet
Middle class dress, on the other hand, was characterized by considerably less elaboration and expense and was based – in contrast to the artificiality cultivated by the nobility
on the ideal of naturalness, i.e., the body and its movement unfettered by fashion. In England, this concept was even adopted by the nobility
Created by: KrisLaur
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