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What is the user's view of the OS? Makes it easier for the user to interact with the hardware. EX. read/write programs,resource management, etc.
What is the system's view of the OS? Manages resources, requests, and controls the hardware form a systems standpoint.
Explain the OS goals. -Efficiently use all resources available in a timely manner -Allow multiple tasks to be used at once -Ease of use and resource sharing -Convenience
What is multiprogramming OS? Multiple programs can run at once; allocates jobs in efficient manner to reduce down time [job scheduling]
What is batch OS? queues everything, runs them all at once, then prints at once
What is timesharing OS? multiple programs can be run at once with multiple users; users can interact with jobs at the same time
How does an OS ensure protection between two user processes? The address space of one process is separated from the address space of another process
How does an OS ensure its own protection as well as that of the other system resources? The kernel specifies the difference between user and root, only allowing certain changes.
What is the level, access time, and size of the Registers in the storage hierarchy? Level 1, > 1KB, 0.25-0.5 ns
What is the level, access time, and size of the Cache in the storage hierarchy? Level 2, > 16MB, 0.5-25 ns
What is the level, access time, and size of the Disks in the storage hierarchy? Solid State: Level 4, < 1TB, 25000-50000 ns Magnetic: Level 5, <10TB, 5000000 ns
The architecture registers are managed by the hardware (T/F)? Explain. False, it is managed by the compiler
The user can directly manage the disk (T/F)? Explain. False, it is managed by the OS
Explain how the OS provides virtualization. It runs under the control of a hypervisor.
Name a few of the OS services to help the user. - User Interface - program executer - I/O operations - file-system manipulation - inter-process communication - error detection
Name a few OS services for efficient system operation. - resource allocation - accounting of system resource usage - protection and security
What are system calls? Programming interface to the services provided by the OS.
How do system calls differ from other function calls? They are mostly accessed by programs via API rather than direct system call use.
What is an API? Application Program Interface - provides a simpler interface to the user, reduces coupling between kernel and application, increases portability.
Would you prefer to use in a high-level program? API or system call? API
What is the policy and mechanism in the design process? Policy: What type of system to design? Mechanism: based on the goals chosen for the system and user
What is the policy and mechanism in the implementation process? Policy: what was decided in design Mechanism: language chosen and the design of the code
What are the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of Monolitic OS design? Characteristic: monolithic Advantage: simple Disadvantages: poor separation between interfaces and levels of functionality, difficult to maintain and extend
What are the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of Layered Architecture OS design? Characteristic: OS division in to multiple layers, upper layers use functions and services provided by lower-level layers Ad: more modular and maintainable, achieves info hiding, simple debugging and verification Dis: interdependencies between layers
What are the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of Microkernel OS design? Char: moves as much functionality from the kernel into "user" space, communicate between user modules using message passing Ad: easier to extend & port to new architectures, more reliable & secure Dis: performance overhead
What is virtualization? Takes over control of the host hardware resources, creates illusion that a process has its own computer system
What are the benefits of virtualization? -Multiple OSs can share same hardware -Apps in diff VMs isolated from each other -testing cross-platform -consolidation of many low-resource use systems into fewer busier systems
Define process. A program in execution; an instance of a program
How is a process different from a program? Program: passive, only text Process: active, code, data, PC, heap, stack, etc.
In what order (from Max to 0) are the components in the process address space? stack, BLANK, heap, data, text
Describe what a kernel must do to switch context between two processes
Created by: rachel_gilman
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