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what is the proper way to lift a patient? Knees bent, feet apart, don't twist your trunk, push or pull rather than lift in position.
What day were X-rays discovered? November 8th 1895
who discovered X-rays? Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
When are you allowed to share results with a patient? Never
Films belong to the clinic for how long? 5-7 years
You notice that there is a big discrepancy in the order, what do you do? Check with the doctor.
When can you shoot an x-ray when you don't presently have an order? Never
Maslow is responsible for what? Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, explaining that people need to have, physiological needs met, need to feel safe, need loving and belonging, to have self esteem, and self actualization.
What is a physiological need? food, shelter, air, water, sleep, sexual fulfillment
What is the highest form of law? Constitutional Law,
What are the 4 Types of Law? Statutes-rules or principals enhanced by legislative bodies, Administrative regulations-written by boards or agencies, Common law - system of applied law developed in the absence of written law, Constitutional Law-Higest order of law decided by lower cour
What is Autonomy? Your right to choose
who can consent for a minor? Parent, guardian, emancipated minor
what is implied consent? When a pt is unconscious or in a life threatening emergency, it is assumed that given the gravity of the situation consent would be given.
define libel. malicious writing about someone
Define False imprisonment conscious restraint of the freedom of another person without proper authorization, privilege or consent.
what is Utilitarianism? an ethical theory based on consequence.
What controlling exposure factor represents the quantity of electrons? mA
What represents the overall blackness on a film? density
Distance influences what? density
what is the medical term or prefix/sufix that means lack of oxygen in the tissue? Anoxia
what does "neuro" relate to? nerve
whar does "endo" relate to? inside
what is the word meaning to turn the palm up? supinate
what does it mean to turn the palm down? pronate
X-ray term meaning towards the feet caudal
X-ray term meaning towards the head cephalad/cephalic
What does decubitius stand for? cross table
which way is the patient facing if you are shooting an AP oblique? forward at a 45 degree angle
Define projection positioning term which refers to the direction or path of the central ray (CR) as it passes through the pt.
what position are you in if you are laying down with your feet above your head? Trendelenburg
what is the prone position? laying face down
what is the dorsal part of your foot? top of it
what is the common lateral position for a CXR (chest xray) and why? Left Lateral, it decreases the OID which decreases magnification to the heart.
define anatomy? study of body structures.
define physiology? study of the function of the structures
deine osteology the study of bones
What organization evaluates x-ray programs? JRCERT- Joint Review Committee for Education in Radiology Technology
What is the ASRT? The American Society of Radiology Technology.
What do you call a patient the is not showing symptoms? Asymptomatic
what are Medical Ethics? Ethics as they apply to medicine, despite if the conflict with your personal morals or beliefs.
Where should the Xray tube be placed before and after ever exam? At the foot side of the table.
What are the two types of tubes? Crookes tube and Coolidge tube
A Crookes tube is known as a what tube? Cold cathode tube.
what is it called when a current passover a filament in a vacuum and electrons are released? Thermionic emission
Coolidge tube is know as a what tube because it uses more electrons? Hot cathode tube
what are the commonly used tubes today? Rotating anode tubes.
What is the disk on the rotor made out of today? tungsten
Briefly explain how a tube generates a beam. The volts & the AMPs are set the the V's are sent to the step up transformer where they become kV, then they travel across the L or S filament, the kV is offset by the negative volts, are projected to the spinning anode and the collision ionizes the beam
what 4 types of IR will we be working with. DR - Digital radiography, Solid Slate detectors (DR), Imaging Plate (CR), film and cassette
what are the 4 Image quality factors Density, Contrast, Recorded Detail and Distortion
what is density? and what controls it? The overall blackness of the film, mA and exposure time
What is contrast? and what controls it? difference in densities between any two areas on the film. The variations of gray. kVp
what is recorded detail and what controls it? it is the ability to visualize small structures. - Geometry, film, distance, screen, focal spot, motion
Distortion? what is it and what controls it? Misrepresentation of a shape or structure. Shape distortion is foreshortening or elongation- alignment, central ray, anatomic part, IR, angulation
How do you compensate for an increased OID? Change the distance of the tube.
how do you get foreshortening? the body part is angled.
How do you elongate something on film? the tube is angled
What radiographs do you view with the distal end toward the ceiling? wrist, hands, feet toes
What are the two types of pt motion on xray films? and how do you control motion? Voluntary and involuntary, shorter exposure time
what are the first three steps of the 16 steps of an x-ray that you HAVE to do in order? 1. Introduce yourself, 2.Verify patient 3. Ask if there is any chance of pregnancy if female
what 4 things are required on an Xray? Pt name/ID, Date, Institution name, R or L marker
what are the two standard distances used in x-ray? 40'' 72''
What is the number one error in x-ray? technique
When should the light field be bigger than the IR? Never
What does increasing the OID do? magnifies body part.
What does SID affect? pt dose, magnification, recorded detail.
Longer SID does what? reduces magnification and increases recorded detail.
When do you use shielding? Always.
what pt conditions would you decrease your technique for? old age, pneumothorax, emphysema, emaciation, degenerative arthritis, atrophy
What pt conditions would you increase your technique for? Pneumonia, pleural effusion, enlarged heart, edema
what are they different types of body habitus? Sthenic, Hyposthenic, Asthenic, Hypersthenic
what percentage of people have Asthenic body habitus? 10%
what percentage of people have Sthenic body habitus? 50%
what percentage of people have Hypersthenic body habitus? 5%
what percentage of people have Hyposthenic body habitus? 35%
What are the 5 classifications of bones? Long, Short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
What is an example of a short bone? carplas of the wrist or tarsals of the ankle
What are the 3 different kinds of structures of connective tissue in joints? Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial.
what are the 3 functional classification of joints and which is which? synarthroses- immovable, amphiarthroses- slightly moveable, diarthroses- freely moving
what are the two names for a fracture where the bone is sticking out of the skin? open/compound
what do the words parietal and visceral mean? Parietal - wall of lining of the body cavity. Visceral- covering of organs.
what means "referring to part or parts on the opposite side of the body" contralateral
what is the projection that "just skims" the body part called? Tangential projection
What constitutes and axial projection? taken at more than 10 degrees
In a lateralmedial projection of the forearm, where is the thumb located? or to clarify, where is it in relation to the IR. it is facing up, parallel to the IR, pinky side against the IR
what direction is your big toe pointed if you have medial rotation? towards the center of your body.
what position is it when your pt lean back against the IR so only the shoulders are in contact with it? Lordotic position
How is the pt positioned for a Left Ventral Decubitis x-ray? and what radiograph will be produced by that position? lying on their stomach with their left side to the IR. Left Lateral projection.
What word means "circular movement of a limb"? circumduction
what increases the angle of a joint? extension
what decreases the angle of a joint? flexion
rotation of the forearm so that the palm is up? supination
rotation of the forearm so the palm is down? pronation
When should markers be used? Always
What marker should be used when doing a lateral projection? the side that the patient is facing, the marker should be in front of the pt so to speak.
What marker should be used when doing projections of the limbs with side by side images? The left and the right marker.
When should you not shield the gonads? when it interferes with the region you are trying to visulize
what is an image called on an IR before it is processed? Latent image
What is an image called after it has been processed? manifested image
What is a film or other base material containing the processed image of the anatomic part produced by x-rays on an IR? Radiograph... Duh!
what plane cuts someone into anterior posterior and left and right? midcoronal, and midsagittal
what word refers to the posterior part of your foot? posterior hand? palntar, palmar.
what word refers to the top of your hand? top of your foot? dorsum manus, dorsum pedis
which way do you hang/view xrays? anatomical position.
What is the Occlusal Plane used to visualize? C1
What landmark is used to visulize C3? Gonion
C7 landmark? Vertebra Prominence
The 4th Lumbar spinous process is determined by what landmark? Iliac crest or Interiliac plane
what are vertebrae are you aiming for when doing a AP chest? T7
T2-T3 is at what landmark? jugular knotch
S1- S2 is determined by what landmark? ASIS or Anterior Superior Ilias Spine
How do you find T7? Inferior angle of the scapula
How many bones are part of your Axial Skeleton? 80
How many bones are part of your Appendicular skeleton? 126
What skeleton structure Axial or Appendicular controls movement? Appendicular
What skeleton structure Axial or Appendicular supports the head and trunk? Axial
What part of the bone is bone marrow made? trabeculae
in long bones, where is the red bone marrow concentrated? At the ends of the bones
in long bones, where is the yellow bone marrow? medulliary cavity
where do blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the bone? periostieum
what are the 3 fibrous joints? syndesmosis - inferior tibiofibular joint, Suture- skull, gomphosis- roots of teeth
What is the fibrous joint that holds your teeth in place? gomphosis
what are the cartilaginous joints? symphysis- symphysis pubis, synchondrosis- between the diaphysis and epiphysis ,
What are the synovial joints? gliding- uniaxial -ribs, hinge- uniaxial knee- pivot- uniaxial neck - ellipsoid - biaxial wrist, saddle- biaxial thumb, ball and socket - multiaxial hip.
What is deviation? turning away from the regular or standard course
what does ipsilateral mean? All on the same side
sesamoid is embedded in the? tendon
what is calverium another word for? cranium or skull
what is a view? part of the body seen by the IR
what is a fissure? a clef or deep groove
what is a meatus? tube like passageway running through a bone
what is a process or projection? bones or part of bones that extend beyond or project out from the body of the main bone
what is a condyle? a rounded process at an articular extremity
what is a hamulus? a hook like shaped bone.
what is a line? a linear elevation, less prominent ridge than a crest
what is a malleolus? club like shaped projection
what is a trochanter? either of two large rounded and elevated processes located at the junction of neck of femur
what is a foreman? A hole in the bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves.
what is a fossa? pit, fovea, hollow space
what is a sulcus furrow, trench or fissurelike depression
what is a coracoid and coronoid? beak / crown like process
where are your long bones? extremities
what does red bone marrow produce? red and white blood cells
what does yellow bone marrow do? stores adipose cells or fat cells
when does primary ossification start? before birth
what happens during secondary ossification? the epiphysis and diaphysis start to fuse together
Created by: christina325