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Unit 7

drug sources, schedules, and dosages

TermDefinition
Abuse The excessive or improper use of a substance, person, or animal
Addiction The physical or psychological dependency on a substance
Administer to give
Bioassay The process of determining the strength quality of a drug by testing it on a animal or an isolated organ
Biologics A term used more restrictively for a class of medications that are produced by means of biological processes involving recombinant DNA technology
Biotechnology the biological and engineering study of the relationship between human beings and machines
Controlled substance A drug that has the potential for addiction and abuse
Dispense to prepare and give out
Genetic engineering the synthesis alteration, or repair of genetic material through the application of engineering principles
Narcotic Producing sleep or stupor
Pharmacopeia authorized publication on drugs and there preparations
Practioner one who has met the professional and legal requirements of a certain occupation or profession
Prescribe To order or recommend the use of a drug, diet, or other form of therapy
Pharmacodynamics study of drugs and their actions on living organisms
Pharmacognosy The science of natural drugs and their physical, botanical, and chemical properties
Pharmacogenetics Personalizing drug treatment according to the patient generics
Chemical formula that denotes chemical composition
Generic official name
Brand trade name given by manufacturer
Pharmacokinetics study of the metabolism and action of drugs within the body
Pharmacotherapeutics study of drugs and their relationships to the treatment of disease
Toxicology study of poisons; the science concerned with toxic substances
Therapeutic -may be used in the treatment of an allergy to relieve the symptoms or to sustain the patient ex- antihistamines
Diagnostic -used in conjunction with radiology to allow the physician to pinpoint the location of a disease process ex-Ethidol
Curative -kill or remove the causative agent of a disease ex-antibiotics
Replacement -used to replace substances normally found in the body ex-hormones and vitamins
Prophylactic/preventive -used to ward off or lessen the severity of a disease ex-immunizing agents
Plants have been used as a source of medication since time began leave, roots, stems, or fruit ex-
Animails very few drugs fluids, tissues, organs, or glands ex-
Minerals naturally occurring substances highly purified form ex-
Synthetic combination of various chemicals may be identical to natural drug or totally unique can be produced in great volume less expensive than natural drugs exs-
Genetically engineered pharmaceuticals biotechnology used in healthcare, agriculture, and industry utilizes gene splicing/DNA exs-
Biologics vaccines, blood and blood products, recombinant therapeutic proteins exs-
Drug legislation -all legal drugs controlled by Federal Food, Drug, and cosmetic Act -Protects purity, strength, and composition of food, drugs, devices, and cosmetics -FDA responsible or enforcement
Schedule I -Not legal for use in U.s. -High potential for abuse exs-
Schedule II -high potential for abuse -legal medical uses in U.S exs-
Schedule III -low to moderate potential for physical dependency -high potential for psychological dependency exs-
Schedule IV -low potential for abuse as compared to schedule III -accepted medical use in U.S exs-
Schedule V -lowest potential for abuse -accepted medical use in the U.S exs-
Initial first dose
Average is the amount of medication proven most effective with minimum toxic effect
Loading larger dose of a drug that may be given at the beginning of treatment
Maintenance amount that will keep concentrations of the drug at a therapeutic level in the patient's bloodstream
Minimum smallest dose that will be effective
Maximum large amount of medication that can be given safely to a patient
Therapeutic amount needed to produce that desired effect
Divided fractional portion administered at short intervel
Unit premeasured amount of medication individually packaged on a per dose basis
Cumulative summation of a drug present in the body after repeated medication
Lethal is the amount of medication that could kill a patient
Toxic is the amount of drug that causes signs and symptoms of drug toxicity
USP/NF -official list of standardized drugs -published every 5 years
PDR -for health professionals -supplements available throughout year
PDR Nurse's Drug Handbook -published annually
Product information insert -provided by the drug manufacturer
Drugs @ FDA -official website of FDA, DHHS and CDER -searchable catalog of FDA-approved drug products(prescription and OTC) -updated daily with marketing status
Drug Dosage -factors to consider -weight, age, and gender -pregnancy/lactation -physical or emotional condition -disease process/presence of another process -causative microorganism and infection severity -past medical history -safest method, route, time, and amount for desired
Controlled Substance Act -For any drug with potential for addiction or abuse, it controls: -manufacture -importation -compounding -selling -dealing or giving away
Controlled Substance Act -DEA responsible for enforcement -Practitioners must register with DEA -must renew registration every 3 years
Controlled Substances -record keeping -must be kept separately from other records -must be maintained on a daily basis -must be kept for minimum 2 years
Security -must be kept away from other drugs -keep under double lock -minimum employee access -narcotic keys must be proteced
Created by: sandgalv29