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Heaven Nevels

Chapter 8 and 10 Vocabulary

Solute A substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution
Solvent A substance in which the solute dissolves
Dissociation The process in which an ionic compound separates into ions as it dissolves
Dispersion The process of dissolving by breaking into smaller pieces
Ionization The process by which neutral molecules gain or lose electrons
Acid A compound that produces hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water; a proton donor
Indicator A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base
Base A compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water; a proton acceptor
Neutralization A chemical reaction between an acid and a base
Salt An ionic compound formed when an acid reacts with a base
pH A measure of the hydronium ion concentration of a solution
Buffer A solution that is resistant to large changes in pH
Electrolyte A compound that produces ions when it dissolves
Radioactivity The process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy
Radioisotope An isotope with an unstable nucleus
Nuclear Radiation Charged particles and electromagnetic waves that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes
Alpha Particle A positively charged particle, emitted by certain radioactive nuclei, made of two protons and two neutrons
Beta Particle An electron emitted by an unstable nucleus
Gamma Ray A penetrating form of radiation emitted by an unstable nucleus
Background Radiation Nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment
Strong Nuclear Force A powerful attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus
Fission A nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus is split into two smaller parts
Chain Reaction A series of fission reactions triggered by neutrons released during the fission of a nucleus
Critical Mass The smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
Fusion A nuclear reaction in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus
Plasma A state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons
Created by: heavennevels1