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Developmental Psych

Test #1

QuestionAnswer
What is developmental psychology? Developmental psychology is one of the largest sub-fields in psychology. It is concerned with changes in behavior and abilities that occur within development, and throughout all stages of the life cycle.
What do developmental researchers examine? Changes in behavior and abilities, and how they occur.
What are the basic goals of developmental psychological research? How many are there? 2 basic goals: (1) To describe human behavior at each stage of development. (2) To Define causes and processes that produce change in behaviors from one stage to the next.
How can you accomplish the (2) basic goals of developmental psychology? By determining the effects of one's genetic make up, their physical and social environment, their experiences, and the biological and structural characteristics of their brain.
Why do developmental psychology and child psychology refer to the same body of scientific knowledge? Because developmental psychologists focus on the stages that lead up to adolescence, as do child psychologists.
Why do developmental psychologists study children? 1. Period of rapid development. 2. Long term influences. 3. Insight to complex processes 4. Social policy application 5. Interesting subject matter
What is human development? Human development is the scientific study of the quantitative and qualitative changes in an individual. NOTE: Human development is interdisciplinary.
What are quantitative and qualitative changes in reference to the characteristics of human development? Quantitative refers to changes in amount (i.e. height, weight, vocabulary, etc.) Qualitative refers to changes in nature (i.e. degree of one's intelligence)
What are the major aspects of human development over the lifespan? How many are there? 3 Major aspects: 1. Intellectual development/cognitive development (i.e. thinking, perception, memory, judgement, learning) 2. Physical development (i.e. growth/change in height, muscle, brain) 3. Psycho-social development (i.e. personality/social)
What are the phases of human development? How are they divided by age? How many phases are their? 8 phases: 1. Prenatal (conception-birth) 2. Infancy (birth-2) 3. Childhood (2-12) 4. Adolescence (12-17) 5. Adulthood (18-death): 6. Early Adulthood (18-mid 30s) 7. Mid. Adulthood (mid 30s-mid 60s) 8. Late Adulthood (mid 60s-death)
What are the major themes of Developmental psychology? How many are there? 7 Major themes: 1. The critical period 2. Universal/non-universal 3. Maturation vs. experience 4. Nature vs. nurture 5. Normality vs. abnormality 6. Active vs. passive 7. Continuity vs. discontinuity
What is a theory? A theory attempts to organize data or information, to explain why certain events/behaviors occur. A set of inter-connected statements, definitions, IVs, laws, hypothesis, etc.
What is the criteria of a good theory? How many are there? 1. Reliable predictions 2. Internally consistent 3. Comprehensible 4. Testable 5. Guides future research 6. Falsifiable 7. Reflects real world 8. Makes sense 9. Stimulates new research 10. Affordable 11. Guidance in solving probs w/child rearing
What are the main differences in developmental theory? How many are there? Three: 1. Type of behavior being studied (can be assed by complexity) 2. Age level being studied (different factors in focus depending on age) 3. Emphasis on biological and genetic OR social and cultural determinants. (Nature vs. nurture)
What are the theories of developmental change? How many are there? Two: Mechanismic: Describes an individual's nature as being composed of many parts. Reacts only to outside forces. Change is continual. Organsmic: Describes the individual as organized & complete. Acts without external influences. Non-continuous change.
What are the Developmental theories in this course? How many are there? 1. Cognitive theory (changes occur w/ adaptation) 2. Psychoanalytic theory (sexual/social factors) 3. Behavioristic theory (behavior changes w/ experience) 4. Humanistic theory (focus on individual) 5. Ecological theory (behavior=product of evolution
What was the given background context about Freud? Sigmund Freud. Founder of psychoanalytic theory. Medical student, employed hypnosis. Intrigued by the powerful role of the unconscious. Was suffering from cancer. Cocaine use to cope w/ illness.
What are the general characteristics of Freud's psychoanalytic theory? How many are there? 1. Dynamic approach 2. Structural approach 3. Geographical approach 4. Psychoanalytic methods approach 5. Psychosexual developmental stage approach
What is the dynamic approach? (Freud's psychoanalytic theory) Refers to the sexual energy each child is born with, referred to as the libido. Located in the erogenous zones of the body (oral, anal, genital.) *Freud: The arrival of the libido at each stage marks a new stage in the child's psychosexual development.
What is the structural approach? (Freud's psychoanalytic theory) Three main personality structures: ID, Ego, Superego.
What is the ID? It is the dark and mysterious side of one's personality. The ID makes up our impulsive, selfish, and pleasure-seeking behaviors. Wants immediate gratification. Source of innate desires.
What is the EGO? The mind's avenue to the real world. Focused on perception, logical thought, problem solving. Ego's decisions are aided by anxiety, that when strong, threaten to engulf the ego & cause defense mechanisms to surface.
What are the defense mechanisms of the ego? How many are there? 1. Repression 2. Reaction formation 3. Projection 4. Regression 5. Fixation 6. Sublimation 7. Compensation 8. Identification 9. Displacement
What is the SUPEREGO? Occurs when children resolve the Oedipus complex. Composed of the conscience (-) punishes child w/ feelings of guilt, and the ego idea (+) rewards the child w/ pos. self-esteem and pride. Super ego opposes the spoiled child (ID) and watches over the ego.
What is the geographical approach? (Freud's psychoanalytic theory) The mind displays three regions that operate holistically to produce behavior: 1. Unconscious thoughts - unknown (ID resides here) 2. Pre-conscious thoughts - forming mental images linking words 3. (Perceptual) conscience thoughts - always aware of
What is the psychoanalytic methods approach? (Freud's psychoanalytic theory) Encompasses 3 sub-methods: 1. Free association: subject verbally reports ongoing stream of thought 2. Dream analysis: focus on subjects verbal report of own mental activity 3. Transference: occurs when patient shows + or - feelings towards therapist
What is the psychosexual developmental stage approach? How many stages are there? Stage 1: Oral stage (birth-1) Stage 2: Anal stage (1-3 Stage 3: Phallic stage (3-6) Stage 4: Latency period (6-12) Stage 5: Genital area (12 yrs+)
What is the oral stage of psychosexual development? Libido is located in the mouth. Infants pleasure comes from sucking. How long/when infants are breasted influences the child longterm. Weaning early or late causes oral fixation (leads to alcoholism, smoking, having a demanding personality)
What is the anal stage of psychosexual development? Pleasure comes from bowel mvmnts &w/holding them.Positive toilet training experiences are the main concern. If toilet training is too difficult, anal personality may develop. (Over controlling, compulsive, neat, hostile -behaviors exhibited later in life)
What is the phallic stage of psychosexual development? Stimulation comes from direct touching of genitals. Children become sexual attracted to parent of opposite sex. (Oedipus and electra complex)
How can a child resolve the Oedipus or Electra complex? 1. Repression (forcing their ideas into the unconscious) 2. Identification (compensate for their loss of affection by opposite sex parent by adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent.
What will happen if the Oedipus or Electra complex is not resolved? Children will grow into adults that are impotent or rigid, and unable to handle competition.
What is the latency period of psychosexual development? The libido remains repressed and inactive. Child focuses on school and same sex playmates. Cognitive skills and cultural values are achieved here, as the child's world expands (teachers, peers, coaches, etc.)
What is the genital area, of psychosexual development? The libido reemerges. Child develops an appropriate attraction towards the opposite sex. Goal here is to develop a mature adult sexuality w/ biological aim of reproduction.
According to Freud, are the personality structures separate or intertwined? Intertwined
What is puberty? It is a sub-stage within childhood. It marks the end of childhood, and the beginning of adolescence (occurs @ age 12)
Created by: 536363651