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PSY 416 Ch. 3

Attention

TermDefinition
Selectivity The selective aspects of attention--we pay attention to some aspects of our enviornment and ignore other aspects.
Bottleneck Theory A theory that attempts to explain how people select info when some info=processing stage becomes overloaded with too much information
Concentration investing mental effort in one or more tasks
Mental Effort The amount of mental capacity required to perform a task.
Capacity Theory A theory that proposes that we have a limited amount of mental effort to distrobute across tasks, so there are limitations on the number of tasks we can perform at the same time.
Filter Model The proposition that a bottleneck occurs at the pattern recognition stage and that attention determines what info reaches the pattern recognition stage.
Limited-capacity perceptual channel The pattern recognition stage of Broadbent's model, which is protected by the filter (attention) from becoming overloaded with too much perceptual info.
Shadowing An experimental method that requires people to repeat the attended message out loud.
Contextual Effect The influence of the surrounding context on the recognition of patterns.
Threshold The minimal amoung of activation required to become consciously aware of a stimulus.
Attenuation A decrease in the perceived loudness of an unattended message.
Late-Selection Model Proposal that the bottle-neck occurs when info is selected for memory.
Allocation of Capactiy When a limited amound of capacity is distributed to various tasks.
Arousal A physiological state that influences the distribution of mental capacity to various tasks.
Enduring Disposition An automatic influence where people direct their attention.
Momentary Intention A conscious decision to allocate attention to certain tasks or aspects of the environment.
Multimode Theory A theory that proposes that people's intentions and the demands of the task determine the IP stage at which info is selected.
Subsidiary Task A task that typically measures how quickly people can react to a target stimulus to evaluate the capacity demands of the primary task.
Automatic Processing Performing mental operations that require very little mental effort.
Stroop Effect The finding that it takes longer to name the color of the ink a word is printed when the word is the name of a competing color (i.e. the word red printed in blue ink)
Incidental Learning Learning that occurs when we do not make a conscious effort to learn.
Created by: nga