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MedSx CA & DM

notes to study for quiz

cancer malignant tumor
oncology study of cancer
neoplasm tumor-new growth that serves no purpose-uncontrollable & progressive
benign growth is slow & incapsulated
malignant fast growing & spreads-competes for space & blood supply
carcinoma solid tumor, made up in or of epithelial cells, it is most common type of cancer (breast, colon, liver, lung, stomach, prostate)
sarcoma made from supportive & connective tissue-can be in bone, fat, mm or cartilage
leukemia blood-forming tissues w/in bone marrow. can be acute or chronic- large # of abnormal WBC that infiltrate bone marrow- can spread out to other areas-crowds out normal cells
lymphoma hodgkins or non-hodgkins- cancer of lymphatic system. (non-hodgkins more common)
risk factors/carcinogens for cancer dev age, genetics, diet, virus, chemicals, UV, radiation, alcohol abuse, smoking, some hormones, certain medications, previous cancer, lower income, occupational hazards, stress, precancerous lesions
heredity + carcinogen = DNA mutation
DNA mutation leads to tissue change + immune dysfunction
hyperplasia excessive growth
dysplasia abnormal growth
anaplasia loss of differenciation between tumor cells and normal cells
cancer progression local -> invasive -> metastatic
local have not yet spread from site of original tumor
invasive spreads to other sites in same region of the body
metastatic 2nd tumor in another area not close to 1st one
most common sites of metastasis pulmonary, hepatic, CNS, skeletal
common sites of skeletal metastasis skull, pelvis, ribs, spine, proximal femur, proximal humerus
skeletal metastasis complications bone pain, pathological fx, spinal cord injury (SCI)
clinical manifestations systemic no appetite, rapid wt loss, fatigue, weakness, hemorrhage, vomiting
clinical manifestations pain usually have pn but not always
clinical manifestations organ specific example: if lungs- having breathing problems
methods to dx cancer Hx & PE, biopsy, tumor markers
grading degress of anaplasia, grade 1 is better than grade 4
TNM staging-how they classify tumors-T= size & extent of primary tumor- N=# of notdes- M=metastasis
prognosis depends on type of cancer, when it's diagnosed, if you have 5 years of remission
prevention of CA identify risk factors and avoid them, pt edu, regular screenings
CA sx almost always done (remove tumor & bone marrow transplants)
radiation therapy done by x-ray machine or they will insert radio-isotope like IV
chemotherapy immuno-suppressant- decreased WBC count-most effective on metastatic cancer-can be done orally or by injection
biotherapy strengthen immune response-uses interferon (protein) to kill cancer cells
hormones different types-a lot of rx therapies will affect hormones
side effects nausea & vomiting, fatigue, immunosuppression, anemia, may decrease level of H&H in RBC, hair loss, burns
curative vs palliative sometimes we try to cure, sometimes just try to make pt more comfortable
PT contra/precautions -modalites (some can't be done w/CA)- WBC count below 5000 or RBC below 25% places limits on activity
rx options strength & endurance, keep normal function as long as possible, energy conservation, work simplification, use RPE scale, function, fall prevention, adapting environment, maybe recommend AD & fit, caregiver training, positioning, bed mob & trnsf, pn manage
insulin produced by beta cells in Islets of Langerhans, which is in pancreas. moves glucose from blood to cells or to liver
type I DM insulin dependent, no insulin production, onset under 30 yrs, less than 10% of cases, abrupt onset, normal thin body type, ketoacidosis may occur
type II DM non-insulin dependent, caused by increased resistance to insulin, onset over 40 yrs, more than 90% of cases, gradual onset, obese body type, ketoacidosis rare
risk factors DM heredity, family hx, ethnicity, old age, gestational DM, obesity & inactivy, hypertension, HDL's less than 35 or triglyceride over 250, hx of vascular disease
cardinal signs of DM glucouria (glycosuria-glucose in urine), polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (extreme thirst), polyphagia (extreme hunger), ketouria (ketones in urine), weakness, fatigue
clinical manifestations of DM-vascular-small vessel dx retinopathy, kidney dx
clinical manifestations of DM-vascular-large vessel dx CAD, MI, CVA, PVD (heart attack main cause of death)
clinical manifestations of DM-impaired healing increased risk for infections: skin, UTI, vaginal
clinical manifestations of DM- musculoskeletal multiple problems, osteoporosis, we rx with light resistance and wt bearing, not too heavy a load and careful stretching
clinical manifestations of DM- neuropathy symptoms move distal to proximal, SENSORY- cutaneous, proprioception, increase injury, rocker bottom foot. MOTOR-weakness, claw toes, flat foot. AUTONOMIC-no sweating
DM diagnosed... by blood sugar levels- HYPO-less than 70- HYPER- more than 250
clinical signs of hyperglycemia dehydration, ketoacidosis, thirst, abdominal pn, N&V, lethargy, LOC, coma, fruity breath, dry mouth, skin
clinical signs of hypoglycemia faint, shaky, sweating, speech disturbance, double vision, cloudy, LOC, coma, HA
Created by: jessigirrl4