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PC Key terms v2

Population change

Ageing population the increasing average age of the population, together with an increasing proportion of people of over the age of 65.
Assisted passages A migration policy used in Australia to encourage young European families to migrate there between the 1950s and 1970s; known as the 'ten pound passage'.
Birth rate The number of births expressed as a rate per 1000 population in a year.
Crude rates Measure the basic statistics of any population, such as birth or death rates per 1000.
Death rate The number of deaths expressed as a rate per 1000 population in a year.
Demographers people who study population.
Demographic transition How population characteristics change over time.
Demographic Transition Model (DTM) A theory showing how population, food supply, and economic development are linked.
Dependency ratio The proportion of the population not in work (i.e. children 0-15 and those above 64) who are dependent on those in work. It is normally shown as a percentage.
Deprivation A low standard of living caused by low income, poor housing and health, and low education qualifications.
Doubling time the time it takes for the population to double.
Exponential growth Where growth rates become more and more rapid
Fertility rate The average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime, assuming that she survives from birth to the end of her reproductive life.
Grey pound The spending power of those who are retired.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The value of the goods and services produced in a country over a year.
Host nations Where migrants move to.
Infant mortality rate The number of deaths of children before their first birthday expressed as a rate per 1000 population.
Inward migration The process of moving to an area.
Knowledge economy an economy based on financial, legal and management and business services, where expertise is 'sold'.
Life expectancy The expected number of years of life remaining at a given age, usually expressed from birth.
Median age The middle value of a range of data.
Migration Movement of people
Natural decrease Where population falls as death rates exceed birth rates.
Negative multiplier Where low spending power caused by low incomes limits economic growth, and may cause decline as demand falls.
One-child policy a population policy designed to limit every family to one child.
Out-migration The process of moving away from an area.
Population 'explosion' The sustained increase in global population.
Population density The average number of people per unit area (usually a square kiolmetre).
Population structure The proportion of people of each sex in each age group.
Post-production countryside a landscape where leisure and tourism (and not food) earn landowners a living.
Primary employment Jobs in the production of raw materials or natural products, e.g. farming, fishing, forestry, mining and quarrying.
Primary products Raw materials; any goods grown on farms, in forests, or extracted from quarries and mines.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP$) GDP expressed in terms of what per capita income will buy in a country when cost of living is taken into consideration.
Rate of natural increase The number of people per 1000 by which a population increases or decreases within a year.
Refined rates Refer to particular changes in a specific population, e.g. whether a local death rate is higher than average.
Replacement level The number of children needed to maintain a population. This is normally 2.1, to allow for deaths in early life.
Sheltered accommodation Accommodation designed with the needs of the elderly or less mobile in mind.
Skills-based migration a migration policy used in Australia to limit migrants to those who are skilled, based on employment, qualifications, age, and English-speaking abilities.
Soil erosion The removal of fertile soil particles by wind or surface run-off.
Soil salinity The increase in salt content in soil, beyond which plants cannot grow.
Source nations Where migrants originate.
Youthful population Where a high proportion of the population is aged 15 and under.
Created by: apeploe



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