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Gabby Miller

Chapter8&10Vocab

TermDefinition
Solute a substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution
Solvent the substance in which the solute dissolves in
Dissociation the process in which an ionic compound separates into ions as it dissolves
Dispersion breaking into small pieces that spread throughout the water
Ionization the process in which neutral molecules gain or lose electrons
Acid a compound that produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water
Indicator any substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base
Base a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
Neutralization the reaction between an acid and a base
Salt the negative ions in an acid combine with the positive ions in a base to produce and ionic compund
pH a measure of its hydronium ion concentration
Buffer a solution that is resistant to large changes in pH
Electrolyte a substance that ionizes or dissociates into ions when is dissolves in water
Radioactivity the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charges particles and energy
Radioisotope an atom containing an unstable nucleus
Nuclear Radiation charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes
Alpha Particle a positively charged particle made up of two neutrons--the same as a helium nucleus
Beta Particle an electron emitted by an unstable nucleus
Gamma Ray a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus
Background Radiation nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment
Strong Nuclear Force the attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus
Fission the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller parts
Chain Reaction neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus trigger a series of nuclear fissions
Critical Mass the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
Fusion a process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus
Plasma a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons and contains two kinds of particles--nuclei and electrons
Created by: Gabrielle.Miller