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Chapter 8&10 Vocabulary

solute A substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution.
solvent the substance in which a solute dissolves.
dissociation the process in which an ionic compound separates into ions as it dissolves.
dispertion breaking into smaller pieces and spreading throughout a substance.
ionization process in which neutral molecules gain or lose electrons.
acid a compound that produces htydronium atoms when dissolved in water.
indicator any substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base.
base a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
neutralization reactions between an acid and a base.
salt the negative ions in an acid and the positive ions in a base combine to form a salt.
pH a measure of a solutions hydronium acid concentration.
buffer a solution that is resistant to large changes in pH.
electrolyte substance that ionizes or dissociates into ions when dissolved in water.
radioactivity the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy.
radioisotope any atom containing an unstable nucleus.
nuclear radiation charged particles and energy that is emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes.
alpha particle positively charged particle made of two protons and two neutrons.
beta particle an electron emitted by an unstable nucleus.
gamma ray a penetrating ray of energy emitted from an unstable nucleus.
background radiation nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment.
strong nuclear force the attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus
fission the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller parts.
chain reaction neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus.
critical mass the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reactin
fusion the process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus.
plasma a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons.
Created by: evan.voyk