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Chapter 8&10

TermDefinition
Solute A substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution.
Solvent The substance in which the solute dissolves.
Dissociation The process in which an ionic compound separates into ions as it dissolves.
dispersion Breaking into small pieces that spread throughout the water.
ionization The process in which neutral molecules gain or lose electrons.
acid A compound that produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water.
indicator Any substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base.
base A compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
neutralization The reaction between an acid and a base.
salt During neutralization, the negative ions in an acid combine with the positive ions in a base to produce an ionic compound called salt.
pH A measure of its hydronium ion concentration.
buffer A solution that is resistant to large changes in pH.
electrolyte A substance that ionizes or dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water.
radioactivity The process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy.
radioisotope Any atom containing an unstable nucleus is called a radioactive isotope or radioisotope for short
nuclear radiation Charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes
alpha particle A positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons
beta particle an electron emitted by an unstable nucleus.
gamma ray A penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus.
background radiation Nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment.
strong nuclear force The attraction force that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus.
fission The splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller parts.
chain reaction Neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus trigger a series of nucleus fissions
critical mass The smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
fusion A process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus
plasma A state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons
Created by: noah.gaskins