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chapter 8&10 vocab

chapter 8 vocab

solute is a substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution.
solvent the substance in which the solute dissolves .
dissociation the process in which an ionic compound separates into ions as it dissolves.
dispersion sugar dissolves in water by dispersion, or breaking into small pieces that spread throughout water.
ionization the process in which neutral molecules gain or loose electrons.
acid is a compound that produces hydronium ions when dissolved in water.
indicator is any substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base.
base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
neutralizatoin the reaction between an acid and base.
salt during neutralization, the negative ions in an acid combine with the positive ions in a base to produce an ionic compound called salt.
pH the pH of a solution is a measure of its hydronium ion concentration
buffer is a solution that is resistant to large changes in pH.
electrolyte is a substance that ionizes or dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water.
radioactivity is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy.
radioisotope any atom containing an unstable nucleus
nuclear radiation is charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes.
alpha particle is a positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons
beta particle is an electron emitted by an unstable nucleus .
gamma ray is a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus.
backround radiation or nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment.
strong nuclear force is the attractive force that binds protons and neutrons together in the neutrons.
fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller parts.
chain reaction neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus trigger a series of nuclear fissions.
critical mass the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction.
fusion is a process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus.
plasma is a state of matter in which two atoms have been stripped of their electrons.