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PSY 351 Chapter 2

Exam 1

Theory integrated set of statements that explain and predict behavior, leads to a hypothesis
Naturalistic observation descriptive method; no manipulation, depends on strong operational definitions and good interrater reliability; observing and recording behavior in their natural environment
Interviews descriptive method; gain information on participants’ thoughts and feelings, feasibility depends on child’s age, may not be as accurate as observational methods
Case studies descriptive method; good for gaining in-depth knowledge about rare conditions, can use cases to develop and revise current theories; a con is that it is difficult to generalize
Correlational research tell us how two variables are related to each other; does not equal causation
Experimental research determines cause and effect relationships
Quasi-experimental research comparing groups/testing cause and effect but cannot manipulate because it’s unethical
Ensuring objectivity focusing on directly observable characteristics and clearly defining the constructs to be studied
Meta-analysis a method of reviewing the research literature on a given topic that uses statistical procedures to establish the existence and size of effects; researchers determine a global overall effects by collapsing across many studies
Structured observation controlled environment
Unethical about the case of Little Albert cased psychological harm by inducing fear, did not consent, did not reverse the fear
Principle A of ethics standards beneficence and nonmaleficence; do no harm
Longitudinal study the same group of children across multiple time points; no cohort effects; downsides are attrition, time-consuming/expensive, repeated testing can affect results
Cross-sectional study multiple age groups at a single time point, quick and low-cost, no problems of attrition; drawbacks are potential for cohort effects (unique to children you are studying)
Cross-sequential cross between longitudinal and cross-sectional; ideal design but most expensive and time consuming and not as realistic
Microgenetic longitudinal design with “squished time points”, in-depth info about the children, often used with math concepts
Created by: AliRutherford