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Clin Path I

Quiz #1 - Hematology

EPO is a hormone originating in the _____, responds to tissue ______, and disease in the organ can lead to _____. Kidney, hypoxia, anemia*
Characteristics of abnormal RBCs: ---- Orthochromatic normoblast --- Polychromatic erythrocyte -- Mature RBC - (Carboxyhemoglobin) ---- nucleated RBC, orange-red --- AKA reticulocyte, blue tinge, larger -- biconcave disc, seven micra in diameter - tissue brilliant cherry red in color
CBC: Hemoglobin Normal, Abnormal M/F F: 14 +/- 2, M: 16 +/- 2 (g/dL) Anemia: females less than 11, males less than 13 (Hb increases normally at high altitudes)
CBC: Total RBC Normal, Abnormal M/F F: 4.2-5.4 million/ul M: 4.6-6.2 million/ul
CBC: Hematocrit Normal, Sources of error F: 37-47% M: 40-54% Error: High - prolonged stasis, smoking; low - excess EDTA
Mean corpuscular volume Diameter, normal is 7.2 microns - is a measure of RBC volume
Etiology of Macrocytosis (from MCV) - Kmow all 5 1. Folate/B12 deficiency 2. Chronic Liver Disease 3. Chronic alcoholism 4. Reticulocytosis 5. Myxedema
Etiology of Microcytosis (from MCV) - Know all 4 1. Chronic iron deficiency 2. Alpha or beta thalassemia 3. Anemia of chronic disease 4. Sideroblastic anemia (rare)
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin weight
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration - Etiology of hypochromasia - Etiology of hyperchromasia color; - hypo 1.chronic iron deficiency 2.anemia of chronic disease 3.sideroblastic anemia - hyper 1.spherocytosis 2.severe plasma lipemia 3.heavy smoking
Red blood cell distribution width histogram; tells you cells aren't the right size, early test for anemia
CBC: WBC count Normal, Abnormal - Leukopenia - Leukocytosis N: 4500-11000/uL - Leukopenia = viral (but increased lymphocytes) - Leukocytosis = bacterial (increased neutrophils)
CBC: Platelets Normal - Thrombocythemia - Thrombocytopenia N: 150 - 400K/mL Thrombocythemia - malignancy Thrombocytopenia - <70K is clinically evident bleeding tendency
Review in notes: RBC - size (anisocytosis) - shape (poikilocytosis)
Differential WBC: Neutrophils N: 50-70% multi-lobed nucleus *increased in bacterial infection
Differential WBC: Eosinophils N: 1-5% bi lobed nucleus, big red granules *increased with parasites and acute allergies
Differential WBC: Basophils N: 0-1% hidden nucleus, dark purple/black granules *increased with myxedema and bad diseases
Differential WBC: Lymphocytes N: 20-40% size of RBC, mostly nucleus *increased in viral infection
Differential WBC: Monocytes N: 2-10% horseshoe shaped nucleus, usually vacuoles *recovering from infections
CBC: plasma cells should not normally be in blood --> multiple myeloma
Reticulocyte count - etiology of reticulocytosis - normal range aka polychromatic RBC - Polychromatophilia (Wright's stain) - 1. hemolytic anemia 2. chronic bleeding 3. after treatment of B12/Folate/iron deficiency - N: .5-1.5%
ESR tests for _______ (broad sense). It has (low/high) sensitivity. Changes in ESR due to the protein _____. - Normal ranges inflammation, low sensitivity, fibrinogen. Normals: male 1-15 mm/hr, female 1-20 mm/hr, general formula is males=age/2, females=age+10/2
CRP test virtually absent in healthy individuals, increase after infection inflammation surgery trauma
Created by: dwagnerchiro