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RADT 308 Unit 4

Thumb and Finger

QuestionAnswer
Name of the joint between the two phalanges of the thumb Interphalangeal Joint or IP
Name the phalanges of the fingers proximal, middle, and distal
Name the joint between the distal and middle phalanges of the fingers Distal Interphalangeal Joint or DIP
Name the joint between the middle and proximal phalanges of the finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint or PIP
Fracture and dislocation of the posterior lip of the distal radius involving the wrist joint Barton's Fracture
Transverse fracture that extends through the metacarpal neck, most commonly seen in the 5th metacarpal Boxer's Fracture
Fracture of the distal phalanx caused by a ball striking the end of extended finger Baseball(Mallet) Fracture
Fracture that does not traverse through the entire bone Incomplete Fracture
Fracture of wrist from fall forward on outstretched arm. Fragment displaced posteriorly Colles' Fracture
Partial dislocation of radial head of a child's arm, caused by a hard pull of hand or wrist Nursemaid's (Jerked) Elbow
Also known as Reverse Colles, fracture of the distal radius with fragment displaced anteriorly. Smith's Fracture
Fracture through the epiphyseal plate- one of the most easily fractured sites in the long bones of children Epiphyseal Fracture
Increase mAs 50-60% or +5-7 kV Small to Medium dry plaster cast
Increase mAs 100% or +8-10 kV Large or Wet plaster cast
Increase mAs 25%-30% or +3-4 kV Fiberglass cast
SID for finger or thumb 40 inches
Also called luxation Dislocation
Partial dislocation Subluxation
A forced wrenching or twisting of a joint that results in a partial rupture or tearing of support ligaments without dislocation Sprain
A bruise type of injury with a possible avulsion fracture Contusion
Fracture that does not break through the skin Simple (Closed)Fracture
Fracture with part of bone protruding through the skin Compound (Open) Fracture
Fracture where the bone is splintered or crushed at the site of impact, two or more fragments Comminuted Fracture
Fracture with one fragment is firmly driven into the other Impacted Fracture
CR position for finger PIP Joint
Occurs when a bone is displaced from the joint, articular contact of the bones that make up a joint is completely lost Dislocation
If patient can assume position, use mediolateral rotation for the 2nd digit to reduce what? OID
kV range for fingers and thumb 50-60 kV
CR position for the thumb First MCP joint
PA Stress "Skier's Thumb" Projection is also known as Folio Method
Projection to show sprain or tearing of ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb at the MCP joint, result of acute hyperextension of thumb Folio Method
Degree of obliquity for a PA Oblique Thumb 45 degrees
This projection demonstrates fractures or dislocations of the first CMC joint Modified Robert's Method
Used to rule out Bennett's Fracture Modified Robert's Method
Type of shielding for finger or thumb Gonadial
Angle of the CR for the Modified Robert's Method 15 degrees
CR directed ____________ for the Modified Robert's Method Proximally (toward wrist)
CR enters the ____________ joint for Modified Robert's Method First CMC Joint
How much of the metacarpal must be included for a thumb? Entire first metacarpal
Abduct thumb with palmer surface of hand in contact with cassette Position for PA Oblique Projection
PA Thumb causes an increase in _____ OID
CR is directed __________ to IR for an AP Thumb Perpendicular
If patient cannot do an AP Thumb projection, this projection can be used PA Thumb
Rotate hand __________ for AP Thumb Internally
Mediolateral should be used for the ___________ to reduce OID 2nd digit
Long axis of finger should be __________ to the IR Parallel
Rotation for 2nd digit PA Oblique Projection Medial
Rotation for 3rd-5th digits PA Oblique Projecton Lateral
mAs for fingers 2 mAs
mAs for thumb 3 mAs
Type of screen used for finger or thumb Detail Screen
1st -5th IP joints are what type of joints Ginglymus or Hinge type
Movement directions of Ginglymus joint Flexion and Extension
Classification of finger and thumb joints Synovial
Diarthrodial are ______________ movable Freely
The 3 joints of the 2nd-5th digits DIP,PIP,MCP
First Digit Thumb
Fifth Digit Little finger
3 parts of a phalanx Head, body (shaft), base
To keep joint space open, keep finger _______ to cassette Parallel
Exposure factors for thumb or finger low to medium kV (50-70), short exposure time, small focal spot, adequate mAs for sufficient density
Use grid when body part larger than _______cm 10 cm
Can be used to prevent exposure form scatter and secondary radiation when more than one image taken on an imaging plate Lead masking
How much of the imaging plate must be exposed for accurate exposure index in CR system 30%
CR should be ____________ to body part and IR if there is no angle 90 degrees or perpendicular
Close _________ helps to reduce patient radiation dose Collimation
As Low As Reasonably Achievable ALARA principle
Lowest exposure factors to produce an optimal image highest kV possible and lowest mAs
This produces a noisy (grainy) image Insufficient mAs
Break in the bone caused by force Fracture
Widening of inner MCP joint space of thumb and increase in degrees of angle of MCP line Skier's thumb
50-60% of these cases also involve an ulnar styloid fracture Colles' Fracture
Chronic systemic disease, inflammatory changes throughout the body's connective tissues, soft tissue swelling most prevalent around the ulnar styloid. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
3 times more common in women than men RA
Early bone erosions at the 2nd and 3rd MCP joints or the 3rd PIP joint RA
Closed joint spaces with subluxation of MCP joints RA
Fluid-filled joint space with possible calcifications Bursitis
Fluid-filled joint cavity Joint Effusion
Narrowing of joint space with periosteal growth on the joint margins Osteoarthritis (DJD)
Soft tissue swelling and loss of fat pad detail visibility Osteomyelitis
Chalky white or opaque appearance with lack of distinction between the bony cortex and the trabeculae Osteopetrosis
Marble bone Osteopetrosis
Decrease in bone density, thin cortex Osteoporosis
_____ exposure factors for Osteoporosis. Decrease
_______ exposure factors for RA Decrease
_______ exposure factors for Osteopetrosis Increase
Mixed areas of sclerotic and cortical thickening with radiolucent lesions Paget's Disease
Cotton wool appearance Paget's Disease
Most common type of benign bone tumor, usually in 10-20 year old Osteochondroma
Another name for Osteochondroma Exostosis
Arises from the outer cortex with the tumor growing parallel to the bone, most common in the knee but also in the pelvis and scapula of children and young adults Osteochondroma
Slow-growing benign cartilaginous tumor Enchondroma
Most often found in small bones of the hands and feet of adolescents and young adults Enchondroma
well-defined, radiolucent- appearing tumors with thin cortex, pathologic fracture with minimal trauma Enchondroma
Benign bone or cartilaginous tumor Chondroma
Slow-growing malignant tumor of the cartilage Chondrosarcoma
Dense calcifications within the cartilaginous mass Chondrosarcoma
Common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults Ewing's Sarcoma
Arises from the bone marrow, symptoms of low-grade fever and pain, prognosis poor by time evident on radiographs Ewing's Sarcoma
Stratified new bone formation,"onion peel" appearance Ewing's Sarcoma
Second most common type of primary cancerous bone tumor, generally in people 10-20 years old Osteogenic Sarcoma (Osteosarcoma)
Most common primary cancerous bone tumor,people 40-70 years old Multiple Myeloma
Multiple "punched-out" osteolytic lesions Multiple Myeloma
Loss of calcium in bone Osteolytic
Tumors are most often______. Benign
Noncancerous Benign
Malignant Cancerous
Destructive bone disease followed by a process of overproduction of very dense yet soft bones, fracture easily, more common in men over 40, commonly affects pelvis, femur, skull, vertebrae, clavicle, and humerus Paget's Disease
Reduction in the quantity of bone, atrophy of skeletal tissue, occurs in postmenopausal women and elderly men Osteoporosis
Bone trabeculae scanty and thin Osteoporosis
Hereditary disease of abnormally dense bone, occurs as a result of fracture and may lead to obliteration of the marrow space Osteopetrosis
Infection of the bone or bone marrow, may be caused by bacteria from trauma, surgery, or more commonly a contiguous source like a diabetic foot ulcer Osteomyelitis
Degenerative joint disease (DJD) Osteoarthritis
Noninflammatory joint disease, characterized by gradual deterioration of the articular cartilage with hypertropic bone formation Osteoarthrisis
Most common type of arthritis and is a normal part of the aging process DJD
Enlarged or overgrown Hypertropic
Accumulated fluid in the joint cavity, sign of underlying condition, such as fracture, dislocation, soft tissue damage, inflammation Joint Effusion
Common painful disorder of the wrist and hand,compression of the median nerve as it passes through the center of the wrist, most common in middle-aged women Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Inflammation of the bursae or fluid-filled sacs that enclose the joints, formation of calcifications in associated tendons, causes pain and limited joint movement Bursitis
Transfer of disease or cancerous lesions from one organ or part not directly connected, transfer of malignant cells through the bloodstream or the lymphatic vessels Bone metastases
Most common of the malignant bone tumors Metastases
Created by: lawebster