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PNS 1

Exam 1: units 0-4

QuestionAnswer
All neurons whose cell bodies are in the CNA are derived from the mantle zone of the neural tube
All neurons whose cell bodies are in the PNS are derived from the neural crest
CNS multipolar neurons pyramidal cells (cerebrum), purkinje cells (cerebellum), interneurons, ascending and descending tract, etc
PNS mutlipolar neurons GSE (aka: final comon pathway neurons, alpha motor neurons, LMNs); pre- and postganglionic GVE sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons
Pseudounipolar neurons only in the PNS and are all sensory (GSA, GVA)
Biopolar neurons only in the PNS and are all sensory (olfactory, retinal, spiral ganglion of the cholea)
Unipolar neurons only in the PNS and are all sensory (rods and cones of the retina)
Pseudounipolar cell body size Large = myelinated axons, touch and proprioception; Small = unmyelinated axons, pain and temperature
satellite cell (CNS/PNS; position; function) PNS; dorsal root and spinal ganglia; surround cell bodies, nutritive
Schwann cell (CNS/PNS; position; function) PNS; peripheral ggl and nerves; myelinate a pieve of one axon; associate with all PNS axons; repair and regeneration
Oligodendrocytes (CNS/PNS; position; function) CNS; white and gray matter; myelinate pieves of many axons; not associated with unmyelinated axons
Astrocytes (CNS/PNS; position; function) CNS; physical blood brain barrier; nutrition; glial scarring: neurofibrillar tangles
Microglial cells (CNS/PNS; position; function) CNS; surrounding vasculature; these are the only cells in the CNS derived from the mesoderm: macrophages
Ependymal cells (CNS/PNS; position; function) CNS; surrounding, lining the ventricles and central canal; nurtitive; primary defense; specific cells making up the choroid plexus make CSF
Schwann cell's origin and site Neural crest; PNS
Oligodendrocytes origin and site ependymal layer, neural tube; CNS
Ventral root contains what functional components GSE, sympathetic GVE (preganglion)
A-alpha fibers larger myelinated fibers convey sensory impulses to the spinal cord from elaborate receptors located in the dermis, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, tendons, joint capsules, ligaments, periosteum, and deep fascia.
A-delta fibers smaller myelinated nerve fibers bring sensory information to the cord from less specialized receptors and free nerve endings in the skin, viscera, muscles, and connective tissue of the body.
A-beta fibers larger myelinated fibers convey sensory impulses to the spinal cord from elaborate receptors located in the dermis, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, tendons, joint capsules, ligaments, periosteum, and deep fascia.
C-fibers small, unmyelinated, slow-conduction sensory fibers of the dorsal roots and convey info concerning pain and perhaps other sensations to the cord
Synapses En-Passant Enlargements occurring along axons making synaptic contacts with identical structures of other axons or dendrites. Frequently seen in ANS, especially between nerve fibers innervating smooth musculature
Donnan Equilibrium When a large, charged, noln-ermeable species exists on one side of the membrane, other permeable, charged species will be affected by the non-permeable species. Gradients of passive diffusion will be established.
Nernst Equation
Conductance Opposite of resistance; the ease with which a membrane allows passage of ions from one side to the other (ion channels)
Capacitance
Goldman Constant-Field Relationship magnitude of the membrane potential depends on the relative distribution of Na+, K+, and Cl- across the membrane, as well as on the relative permeability of the membrane to these ions
GVE's supply sweat glands, vascular smooth muscle, erector pili muscles
GSE's supply muscles, glands
GSA's supply skin, muscle, bone, exteroceptors, proprioceptors (special mechanoreceptors)
GVA's supply blood vessels; interoceptors
Exteroceptors external environment: mechanoreceptors (tissue displacement); Thermoreceptors; nociceptors (tissue damage); chemoreceptors
Interoceptors sense events in the viscera
Created by: hivers